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Title: Biomedical magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy with laser polarized noble gases

Abstract

In the past year, a great deal of attention has been drawn to the use of laser polarized noble gases to produce magnetic resonance images of rodent and human lungs. Initial demonstrations proved the principle that air space images can be produced with noble gases polarized to several percent. (The noble gas density is thousands of times greater than the proton polarization of order 10{sup {minus}5} at 2 Tesla.) The manifold motivations include improvement of pulmonary and circulatory diagnostic radiology techniques as well as study of physiological function including neurological response. The authors have undertaken a program of development and application of MR imaging and spectroscopy using laser polarized gases with several goals including development of techniques and technologies to facilitate research and eventual medical applications. This talk will describe this multi-disciplinary program combining laser and optical physics, magnetic resonance tomography, neurophysiology and medical science.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
394184
Report Number(s):
CONF-9605105-
Journal ID: BAPSA6; ISSN 0003-0503; TRN: 96:005793-0087
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Bulletin of the American Physical Society; Journal Volume: 41; Journal Issue: 3; Conference: 27. annual meeting of the Division of Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics (DAMOP) of the American Physical Society (APS), Ann Arbor, MI (United States), 15-18 May 1996; Other Information: PBD: May 1996
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
55 BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE, BASIC STUDIES; LUNGS; TOMOGRAPHY; BLOOD CIRCULATION; MAGNETIC RESONANCE; XENON 129; HELIUM 3; POLARIZATION; IMAGES

Citation Formats

Welsh, R.C., Rosen, M.S., Coulter, K.P., Chupp, T.E., Swanson, S.D., Agranoff, B.W., and Prince, M.R. Biomedical magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy with laser polarized noble gases. United States: N. p., 1996. Web.
Welsh, R.C., Rosen, M.S., Coulter, K.P., Chupp, T.E., Swanson, S.D., Agranoff, B.W., & Prince, M.R. Biomedical magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy with laser polarized noble gases. United States.
Welsh, R.C., Rosen, M.S., Coulter, K.P., Chupp, T.E., Swanson, S.D., Agranoff, B.W., and Prince, M.R. Wed . "Biomedical magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy with laser polarized noble gases". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_394184,
title = {Biomedical magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy with laser polarized noble gases},
author = {Welsh, R.C. and Rosen, M.S. and Coulter, K.P. and Chupp, T.E. and Swanson, S.D. and Agranoff, B.W. and Prince, M.R.},
abstractNote = {In the past year, a great deal of attention has been drawn to the use of laser polarized noble gases to produce magnetic resonance images of rodent and human lungs. Initial demonstrations proved the principle that air space images can be produced with noble gases polarized to several percent. (The noble gas density is thousands of times greater than the proton polarization of order 10{sup {minus}5} at 2 Tesla.) The manifold motivations include improvement of pulmonary and circulatory diagnostic radiology techniques as well as study of physiological function including neurological response. The authors have undertaken a program of development and application of MR imaging and spectroscopy using laser polarized gases with several goals including development of techniques and technologies to facilitate research and eventual medical applications. This talk will describe this multi-disciplinary program combining laser and optical physics, magnetic resonance tomography, neurophysiology and medical science.},
doi = {},
journal = {Bulletin of the American Physical Society},
number = 3,
volume = 41,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed May 01 00:00:00 EDT 1996},
month = {Wed May 01 00:00:00 EDT 1996}
}
  • While the recent demonstrations of in vivo magnetic resonance imaging using laser-polarized {sup 3}He are impressive, there is great interest in utilizing the technique for {sup 129}Xe. The high solubility of {sup 129}Xe in tissue (10-20mM) and the large chemical shift separation between gas and solution environments (200 ppm) make spectroscopic differentiation of gas phase and tissue compartments facile. To understand the physicological and magnetic behavior of {sup 129}Xe, for imaging, the authors have obtained MR spectra from the mouse thorax in vivo using laser-polarized {sup 129}Xe. These show many peaks and much detail: (1) Alveolar gas phase {sup 129}Xemore » shows intensity and frequency fluctuations correlated with breathing-induced variations in bulk magnetic susceptibility (BMS) of the lung. (2) {sup 129}Xe dissolved in the lung parenchyma also shows BMS correlated variation as well as very rapid T{sub 2} relaxation (< 20ms), attributable to BMS broadening and respiratory motion. (3) Blood and thoracic muscle components are easily distinguished by their different frequencies and intensity buildup rates. These show T{sub 2} times of 60 and 80 ms, respectively. (4) Effective T{sub 1} relaxation times, (including {sup 129}Xe washout) are long in all tissue environments, about 25-30 s. The authors will discuss these results as well as advances toward systems capable of producing large quantities of laser-polarized {sup 129}Xe.« less
  • Using a low transition temperature superconducting quantum interference device as a detector, we have obtained magnetic resonance images of laser-polarized {sup 3}He gas and solid {sup 129}Xe at 4.2 K in magnetic fields as low as 0.54 mT ({sup 3}He) and 1 mT ({sup 129}Xe), corresponding to Larmor frequencies of 17.6 and 11.8 kHz, respectively. The experimental resolution of the images is {approximately}500{mu}m for {sup 3}He in the gas phase and {approximately}950{mu}m for {sup 129}Xe in the solid state. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}
  • No abstract prepared.
  • This is the final report of a six-month, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The nuclei of noble gases can be hyper polarized through a laser-driven spin exchange to a degree many orders of magnitude larger than that attainable by thermal polarization without requiring a strong magnetic field. The increased polarization from the laser pumping enables a good nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal from a gas. The main goal of this project was to demonstrate diffusion-weighted imaging of such hyper-polarized noble gas with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Possible applications include characterizing porosity ofmore » materials and dynamically imaging pressure distributions in biological or acoustical systems.« less
  • Conventional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are fundamentally challenged by the insensitivity that stems from the ordinarily low spin polarization achievable in even the strongest NMR magnets. However, by transferring angular momentum from laser light to electronic and nuclear spins, optical pumping methods can increase the nuclear spin polarization of noble gases by several orders of magnitude, thereby greatly enhancing their NMR sensitivity. This dissertation is primarily concerned with the principles and practice of optically pumped nuclear magnetic resonance (OPNMR). The enormous sensitivity enhancement afforded by optical pumping noble gases can be exploited to permitmore » a variety of novel NMR experiments across many disciplines. Many such experiments are reviewed, including the void-space imaging of organisms and materials, NMR and MRI of living tissues, probing structure and dynamics of molecules in solution and on surfaces, and zero-field NMR and MRI.« less