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Title: Effects of PCBs on liver ultrastructure and monooxygenase activities in Japanese quail

Abstract

The effect of environmental pollutants such as PCBs and DDT on avian species is well documented. It is proven that chronic high level PCB intoxication perturbs calcium metabolism in birds, affecting eggshell thickness. PCBs have an impact on the liver. which accumulates high levels of toxicants. These induce drug-metabolizing enzyme activities in quail (Coturnix coturnix), herring gull (larus argentatus), and partridge (Prdix perdix). As these enzymes can degrade endogeneous molecules such as steroids, xenobiotics like PCBs can severely hinder birds` reproductive performance. PCBs induce damage such as regression of the testes, decreased sperm concentration, and altered embryonic development resulting in death or malformation of chicks. More ever, ultrastructural alterations linked with induction of these enzymes have been observed in the livers of PCB-contaminated chickens and ducks. This study examines the effects of Aroclor 1254 on liver morphology and glycogen content in quail, and related morphological modification to liver monoxygenase activities. 26 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Authors:
;  [1]
  1. Univeriste de Liege, Liege (Belgium) [and others
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
283214
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology; Journal Volume: 56; Journal Issue: 5; Other Information: PBD: May 1996
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
56 BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE, APPLIED STUDIES; LIVER; METABOLISM; MORPHOLOGY; BIRDS; POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS; BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS; JAPAN; GLYCOGEN; ENZYMES

Citation Formats

Stouvenakers, N., and Kremers, P. Effects of PCBs on liver ultrastructure and monooxygenase activities in Japanese quail. United States: N. p., 1996. Web. doi:10.1007/s001289900122.
Stouvenakers, N., & Kremers, P. Effects of PCBs on liver ultrastructure and monooxygenase activities in Japanese quail. United States. doi:10.1007/s001289900122.
Stouvenakers, N., and Kremers, P. 1996. "Effects of PCBs on liver ultrastructure and monooxygenase activities in Japanese quail". United States. doi:10.1007/s001289900122.
@article{osti_283214,
title = {Effects of PCBs on liver ultrastructure and monooxygenase activities in Japanese quail},
author = {Stouvenakers, N. and Kremers, P.},
abstractNote = {The effect of environmental pollutants such as PCBs and DDT on avian species is well documented. It is proven that chronic high level PCB intoxication perturbs calcium metabolism in birds, affecting eggshell thickness. PCBs have an impact on the liver. which accumulates high levels of toxicants. These induce drug-metabolizing enzyme activities in quail (Coturnix coturnix), herring gull (larus argentatus), and partridge (Prdix perdix). As these enzymes can degrade endogeneous molecules such as steroids, xenobiotics like PCBs can severely hinder birds` reproductive performance. PCBs induce damage such as regression of the testes, decreased sperm concentration, and altered embryonic development resulting in death or malformation of chicks. More ever, ultrastructural alterations linked with induction of these enzymes have been observed in the livers of PCB-contaminated chickens and ducks. This study examines the effects of Aroclor 1254 on liver morphology and glycogen content in quail, and related morphological modification to liver monoxygenase activities. 26 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.},
doi = {10.1007/s001289900122},
journal = {Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology},
number = 5,
volume = 56,
place = {United States},
year = 1996,
month = 5
}
  • In well-controlled experiments using white leghorn chickens and Japanese quail, dietary polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and related compounds produced no detrimental effects on eggshell quality. A drastic reduction in hatchability of chicks occurred with 10 to 20 ppM PCBs, but no detrimental effects on eggshell quality, egg production or hatchability were found with 0.5 and 1.0 ppM PCBs, or DDT up to 100 ppM. Dietary PCBs potentiated a vitamin E-selenium deficiency in the chick, increased exudative diathesis, and decreased plasma glutathione peroxidase levels. Dietary PCBs induced hepatic microsomal benzopyrine hydroxylase. Dietary levels of 100 or 200 ppM inorganic mercury asmore » HgSO/sub 4/ or HgCl/sub 2/ had little effect on egg production, hatchability, shell quality, morbidity and mortality. Methylmercury chloride, however, at levels providing 10 or 20 mg Hg/kg of diet, severely affected all of these parameters. Even though the present experiments demonstrate that neither DDT nor PCBs has any effect on eggshell quality in chickens and Japanese quail, they may cause thinning of eggshells in other species. Controlled experiments are lacking. Eagles, ospreys and pelicans all consume fish which in many areas of the world are known to contain methyl mercury. The thinning of eggshells in these species in the wild may have been due, at least in part, to environmental contamination with methylmercury rather than DDT, DDE or PCBs, as has been claimed.« less
  • The effects of acute exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on porphyrin synthesis and cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenases in the small intestine and liver were studied in male Japanese quail. The birds were dosed orally with the PCB mixture, Aroclor 1242, or the individual PCB isomers, 2,4,2',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (2-TCB) and 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (3-TCB), and were killed 48 h later. All the PCB compounds caused a significant increase in porphyrin content and sigma-aminolevulinic acid synthetase (ALA-S) activity in the small intestine and liver. Increases in porphyrins were greater in the small intestine in the liver. However, a smaller increase in ALA-S activity occurred in themore » small intestine than in liver, suggesting that ALA-S induction is not a major mechanism for the increased porphyrin content of small intestine. All the test compounds significantly increased the cytochrome P-450 content of liver. In the small intestine, cytochrome P-450 content was increased by Aroclor 1242 and 2-TCB but not by 3-TCB. The activity of 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, however, was increased by all test compounds in both liver and small intestine. In contrast, there was a striking difference between small intestine and liver in the induction of 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase (ECOD) activity by Aroclor 1242. In the liver, ECOD activity was unchanged or decreased, but in the small intestine, ECOD activity linearly with dose. No tissue difference in ECOD activity was observed after treatment with 2-TCB or 3-TCB.« less
  • Based on the known interrelationship between mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) and between Se and vitamin E, studies were conducted to determine if dietary supplements of vitamin E (500-1000 IU/kg diet) could provide protection against the toxic effects of methylmercury (MeHg) in the Japanese quail. In all instances birds receiving the supplementary level of vitamin E were compared to birds receiving nutritionally adequate levels of the vitamin with dietary supplements of Na2SeO3 that provided 0-0.6 ppm Se. Although 500 IU vitamin E is well below levels previously reported to be toxic, there was an indication that in diets not containingmore » Hg this level of the vitamin had a growth depressing effect on the quail. This level of vitamin E caused no change in hematocrit or bone calcification, but did cause a significant increase in liver weights. A high dietary level of MeHg caused a decrease in growth, hematocrit level, bone calcification, survival rate and an increase in the toxicity score developed for use in these studies. Protection against these effects of Hg was provided by Se and/or vitamin E. Although vitamin E had some protective effect in diets containing no supplementary Se, this protection was overcome by the deleterious effects of Hg. In diets containing the highest level of Se provided, supplementary vitamin E provided little additional protection in these experiments. The protective effect of vitamin E was most evident when 0.05-0.1 ppm Se were provided.« less
  • Fertilized Japanese quail eggs were continuously exposed to 2.45 GHz microwave radiation from day 1 through day 12 of incubation at a power density of 5.0 +/- 0.52 mW/cm2 (mean specific absorption rate . 4.03 mW/gm). In the experiment with embryos, irradiated and control embryos were removed from eggs on day 12, 13 or 14 of incubation and the cerebella were histologically examined. In order to examine the long-term effect of microwave radiation during embryogenesis on the cerebellum, some of the quail were allowed to hatch and were reared to eight weeks of age. Their cerebella were histologically examined, andmore » the extent of dendritic arbores, the length of the stem of the primary dendrite, and the size of the perikaryon of Purkinje cells were measured in Golgi-Cox impregnated sections. In the irradiated embryos, a slight developmental retardation was found in the cerebellar cortices in terms of several morphological parameters. The effects included the growth and subsequent decline of the external granular layer, the growth of the molecular layer, the cellular differentiation and the alignment of Purkinje cells, and the accumulation of granule cells beneath the Purkinje cell layer, as well as lower body and brain weights. In the eight-week-old quail, no significant differences were noted between irradiated and control cerebella in the morphological measurements of Purkinje cells.« less
  • The beneficial effects of a combined dietary supplement of Zn, Cu, and Mn in decreasing Cd absorption was previously reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the individual and combined effects of these three elements. In the first two experiments, day-old Japanese quail were fed basal diets containing either requirement amounts of Zn (30 ppm) and Mn (12 ppm) and slightly above requirement levels of Cu (5 ppm). From Day 7 birds were fed either the basal diet or diets containing combinations at twice these concentrations; a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design was used. /sup 109/Cdmore » content and Cd concentration of these diets were 100 ..mu..Ci and 145 ..mu..g/kg, respectively. In the third experiment, day-old birds were fed either the basal diet or a basal diet containing /sup 109/Cd and single additional supplements of either Zn, Cu, or Mn. All birds were killed at 14 days of age. The Cd concentration was determined for the duodenum, jejunum-ileum, liver, and kidney. When the experimental diets were fed for 7 days, only Zn had a protective effect against Cd. Whereas none of the elements reduced the Cd concentration of the duodenum, Zn reduced the Cd in the jejunum-ileum, liver, and kidney by approximately 66, 21, and 11%, respectively. Cu and Mn caused occasional increases of Cd in some tissues. Feeding the experimental diets for 2 weeks resulted in similar responses. Zn nutrition appears to play an important role in protecting against dietary Cd absorption.« less