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Title: X-ray and synchrotron methods in studies of cultural heritage sites

Abstract

X-ray and synchrotron methods that are most widely used in studies of cultural heritage objects (including archaeological sites)—X-ray diffraction analysis, X-ray spectroscopy, and visualization techniques— have been considered. The reported examples show high efficiency and informativeness of natural science studies when solving most diverse problems of archaeology, history, the study of art, museology, etc.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute” (Russian Federation)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22645401
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Crystallography Reports; Journal Volume: 61; Journal Issue: 5; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2016 Pleiades Publishing, Inc.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES; ARCHAEOLOGY; SYNCHROTRONS; X-RAY DIFFRACTION; X-RAY SPECTROSCOPY

Citation Formats

Koval’chuk, M. V., Yatsishina, E. B., Blagov, A. E., Tereshchenko, E. Yu., E-mail: elenatereschenko@yandex.ru, Prosekov, P. A., and Dyakova, Yu. A. X-ray and synchrotron methods in studies of cultural heritage sites. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1134/S1063774516050096.
Koval’chuk, M. V., Yatsishina, E. B., Blagov, A. E., Tereshchenko, E. Yu., E-mail: elenatereschenko@yandex.ru, Prosekov, P. A., & Dyakova, Yu. A. X-ray and synchrotron methods in studies of cultural heritage sites. United States. doi:10.1134/S1063774516050096.
Koval’chuk, M. V., Yatsishina, E. B., Blagov, A. E., Tereshchenko, E. Yu., E-mail: elenatereschenko@yandex.ru, Prosekov, P. A., and Dyakova, Yu. A. 2016. "X-ray and synchrotron methods in studies of cultural heritage sites". United States. doi:10.1134/S1063774516050096.
@article{osti_22645401,
title = {X-ray and synchrotron methods in studies of cultural heritage sites},
author = {Koval’chuk, M. V. and Yatsishina, E. B. and Blagov, A. E. and Tereshchenko, E. Yu., E-mail: elenatereschenko@yandex.ru and Prosekov, P. A. and Dyakova, Yu. A.},
abstractNote = {X-ray and synchrotron methods that are most widely used in studies of cultural heritage objects (including archaeological sites)—X-ray diffraction analysis, X-ray spectroscopy, and visualization techniques— have been considered. The reported examples show high efficiency and informativeness of natural science studies when solving most diverse problems of archaeology, history, the study of art, museology, etc.},
doi = {10.1134/S1063774516050096},
journal = {Crystallography Reports},
number = 5,
volume = 61,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 9
}
  • The history of the development and application of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDXMA) in studies of cultural heritage sites is considered. In fact, investigations based on these methods began when electron microscopes became a commercial product. Currently, these methods, being developed and improved, help solve many historical enigmas. To date, electron microscopy combined with microanalysis makes it possible to investigate any object, from parchment and wooden articles to pigments, tools, and objects of art. Studies by these methods have revealed that some articles were made by ancient masters using ancient “nanotechnologies”; hence,more » their comprehensive analysis calls for the latest achievements in the corresponding instrumental methods and sample preparation techniques.« less
  • A confocal fluorescence endstation for depth-resolved micro-X-ray absorption spectroscopy is described. A polycapillary half-lens defines the incident beam path and a second polycapillary half-lens at 90° defines the probe sample volume. An automatic alignment program based on an evolutionary algorithm is employed to make the alignment procedure efficient. This depth-resolved system was examined on a general X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) beamline at the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. Sacrificial red glaze (AD 1368–1644) china was studied to show the capability of the instrument. As a mobile endstation to be applied on multiple beamlines, the confocal system can improve the function andmore » flexibility of general XAS beamlines, and extend their capabilities to a wider user community.« less
  • The analysis of cultural Heritage objects is often technically challenging. When analyzing micro-fragments, the amount of matter is usually very tiny, hence requiring sensitive techniques. These samples, in particular painting fragments, may present multi-layered structures, with layer thickness of {approx}10 {mu}m. It leads to favor micro-imaging techniques, with a good lateral resolution (about one micrometer), that manage the discriminative study of each layer. Besides, samples are usually very complex in term of chemistry, as they are made of mineral and organic matters, amorphous and crystallized phases, major and minor elements. Accordingly, a multi-modal approach is generally essential to solve themore » chemical complexity of such hybrid materials. Different examples will be given, to illustrate the various possibilities of synchrotron-based micro-imaging techniques, such as micro X-ray diffraction, micro X-ray fluorescence, micro X-ray absorption spectroscopy and micro FTIR spectroscopy. Focus will be made on paintings, but the whole range of museum objects (going from soft matter like paper or wood to hard matter like metal and glass) will be also considered.« less