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Title: Human machine interface to manually drive rhombic like vehicles such as transport casks in ITER

Abstract

The Cask and Plug Remote Handling System (CPRHS) and the respective Cask Transfer System (CTS) are designed to transport activated components between the reactor and the hot cell buildings of ITER during maintenance operations. In nominal operation, the CPRHS/CTS shall operate autonomously under human supervision. However, in some unexpected situations, the automatic mode must be overridden and the vehicle must be remotely guided by a human operator due to the harsh conditions of the environment. The CPRHS/CTS is a rhombic-like vehicle with two independent steerable and drivable wheels along its longitudinal axis, giving it omni-directional capabilities. During manual guidance, the human operator has to deal with four degrees of freedom, namely the orientations and speeds of two wheels. This work proposes a Human Machine Interface (HMI) to manage the degrees of freedom and to remotely guide the CPRHS/CTS in ITER taking the most advantages of rhombic like capabilities. Previous work was done to drive each wheel independently, i.e., control the orientation and speed of each wheel independently. The results have shown that the proposed solution is inefficient. The attention of the human operator becomes focused in a single wheel. In addition, the proposed solution cannot assure that the commands accomplishmore » the physical constrains of the vehicle, resulting in slippage or even in clashes. This work proposes a solution that consists in the control of the vehicle looking at the position of its center of mass and its heading in the world frame. The solution is implemented using a rotational disk to control the vehicle heading and a common analogue joystick to control the vector speed of the center of the mass of the vehicle. The number of degrees of freedom reduces to three, i.e., two angles (vehicle heading and the orientation of the vector speed) and a scalar (the magnitude of the speed vector). This is possible using a kinematic model based on the vehicle Instantaneous Center of Rotation (ICR): a geometric approach where, at each time instant, the vehicle describes a circumference (either with a finite or infinite radius). The inverse of the kinematic model transforms the three input parameters of the center of mass into the four parameters for the wheels, preserving the omni-directional capabilities. The solution is implemented and tested using a HMI with a control disk and an analog joystick with two axis. The control disk was specially designed for this solution and implemented using a programmable micro-controller. In the first set of experiments, the HMI communicates with a computer running a simulator of the CPRHS/CTS, with the vehicle kinematics and dynamics, moving in a map of the ITER buildings. In the second set of experiments, the HMI communicates with a scaled prototype of the CPRHS running in a mock-up scenario to obtain more realistic results. Several type of tests were performed to evaluate the usability of the HMI. Different human operators without knowledge neither experience with this interface were invited to test the HMI. The operators had to drive the vehicle from an initial place to a final destination under the following conditions: with a pre-computed path to help guidance, without any path, with the information of the closest obstacles and without any help. The performance was evaluated using the time duration of the operation, the energy required to perform the described path, the risk of collision and, in case of a pre-computed path, the comparison between paths. In addition, each operator tested the HMI several times to evaluate the performance along consecutive trials. (authors)« less

Authors:
;  [1];  [2]
  1. Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)
  2. Institute for Systems and Robotics, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers - IEEE, 3 Park Avenue, 17th Floor, New York, N.Y. 10016-5997 (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
22531477
Report Number(s):
ANIMMA-2015-IO-95
TRN: US16V0488102418
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: ANIMMA 2015: 4. International Conference on Advancements in Nuclear Instrumentation Measurement Methods and their Applications, Lisboa (Portugal), 20-24 Apr 2015; Other Information: Country of input: France
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; 42 ENGINEERING; CASKS; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; CONTROL; DEGREES OF FREEDOM; HOT CELLS; ITER TOKAMAK; MAN-MACHINE SYSTEMS; ORIENTATION; PERFORMANCE; REMOTE HANDLING; ROTATION; SIMULATORS; VEHICLES; VELOCITY

Citation Formats

Lopes, Pedro, Vale, Alberto, and Ventura, Rodrigo. Human machine interface to manually drive rhombic like vehicles such as transport casks in ITER. United States: N. p., 2015. Web.
Lopes, Pedro, Vale, Alberto, & Ventura, Rodrigo. Human machine interface to manually drive rhombic like vehicles such as transport casks in ITER. United States.
Lopes, Pedro, Vale, Alberto, and Ventura, Rodrigo. Wed . "Human machine interface to manually drive rhombic like vehicles such as transport casks in ITER". United States.
@article{osti_22531477,
title = {Human machine interface to manually drive rhombic like vehicles such as transport casks in ITER},
author = {Lopes, Pedro and Vale, Alberto and Ventura, Rodrigo},
abstractNote = {The Cask and Plug Remote Handling System (CPRHS) and the respective Cask Transfer System (CTS) are designed to transport activated components between the reactor and the hot cell buildings of ITER during maintenance operations. In nominal operation, the CPRHS/CTS shall operate autonomously under human supervision. However, in some unexpected situations, the automatic mode must be overridden and the vehicle must be remotely guided by a human operator due to the harsh conditions of the environment. The CPRHS/CTS is a rhombic-like vehicle with two independent steerable and drivable wheels along its longitudinal axis, giving it omni-directional capabilities. During manual guidance, the human operator has to deal with four degrees of freedom, namely the orientations and speeds of two wheels. This work proposes a Human Machine Interface (HMI) to manage the degrees of freedom and to remotely guide the CPRHS/CTS in ITER taking the most advantages of rhombic like capabilities. Previous work was done to drive each wheel independently, i.e., control the orientation and speed of each wheel independently. The results have shown that the proposed solution is inefficient. The attention of the human operator becomes focused in a single wheel. In addition, the proposed solution cannot assure that the commands accomplish the physical constrains of the vehicle, resulting in slippage or even in clashes. This work proposes a solution that consists in the control of the vehicle looking at the position of its center of mass and its heading in the world frame. The solution is implemented using a rotational disk to control the vehicle heading and a common analogue joystick to control the vector speed of the center of the mass of the vehicle. The number of degrees of freedom reduces to three, i.e., two angles (vehicle heading and the orientation of the vector speed) and a scalar (the magnitude of the speed vector). This is possible using a kinematic model based on the vehicle Instantaneous Center of Rotation (ICR): a geometric approach where, at each time instant, the vehicle describes a circumference (either with a finite or infinite radius). The inverse of the kinematic model transforms the three input parameters of the center of mass into the four parameters for the wheels, preserving the omni-directional capabilities. The solution is implemented and tested using a HMI with a control disk and an analog joystick with two axis. The control disk was specially designed for this solution and implemented using a programmable micro-controller. In the first set of experiments, the HMI communicates with a computer running a simulator of the CPRHS/CTS, with the vehicle kinematics and dynamics, moving in a map of the ITER buildings. In the second set of experiments, the HMI communicates with a scaled prototype of the CPRHS running in a mock-up scenario to obtain more realistic results. Several type of tests were performed to evaluate the usability of the HMI. Different human operators without knowledge neither experience with this interface were invited to test the HMI. The operators had to drive the vehicle from an initial place to a final destination under the following conditions: with a pre-computed path to help guidance, without any path, with the information of the closest obstacles and without any help. The performance was evaluated using the time duration of the operation, the energy required to perform the described path, the risk of collision and, in case of a pre-computed path, the comparison between paths. In addition, each operator tested the HMI several times to evaluate the performance along consecutive trials. (authors)},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {7}
}

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