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Title: Growth, intermixing, and surface phase formation for zinc tin oxide nanolaminates produced by atomic layer deposition

Abstract

A broad and expanding range of materials can be produced by atomic layer deposition at relatively low temperatures, including both oxides and metals. For many applications of interest, however, it is desirable to grow more tailored and complex materials such as semiconductors with a certain doping, mixed oxides, and metallic alloys. How well such mixed materials can be accomplished with atomic layer deposition requires knowledge of the conditions under which the resulting films will be mixed, solid solutions, or laminated. The growth and lamination of zinc oxide and tin oxide is studied here by means of the extremely surface sensitive technique of low energy ion scattering, combined with bulk composition and thickness determination, and x-ray diffraction. At the low temperatures used for deposition (150 °C), there is little evidence for atomic scale mixing even with the smallest possible bilayer period, and instead a morphology with small ZnO inclusions in a SnO{sub x} matrix is deduced. Postannealing of such laminates above 400 °C however produces a stable surface phase with a 30% increased density. From the surface stoichiometry, this is likely the inverted spinel of zinc stannate, Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}. Annealing to 800 °C results in films containing crystalline Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}, or multilayeredmore » films of crystalline ZnO, Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}, and SnO{sub 2} phases, depending on the bilayer period.« less

Authors:
 [1]; ;  [2]; ; ; ; ;  [3];  [4];  [5]
  1. Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Department of Engineering Sciences, Division of Solid State Electronics, Uppsala University, 75121 Uppsala (Sweden)
  2. ION-TOF GmbH, Heisenbergstraße 15, 48149 Münster (Germany)
  3. Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)
  4. Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)
  5. Department of Material Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22489810
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology. A, Vacuum, Surfaces and Films; Journal Volume: 34; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Vacuum Society; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 42 ENGINEERING; ALLOYS; ANNEALING; DENSITY; DEPOSITION; FILMS; SOLID SOLUTIONS; SPINELS; SURFACES; THICKNESS; TIN OXIDES; X-RAY DIFFRACTION; ZINC; ZINC OXIDES

Citation Formats

Hägglund, Carl, E-mail: carl.hagglund@angstrom.uu.se, Grehl, Thomas, Brongersma, Hidde H., Tanskanen, Jukka T., Mullings, Marja N., Mackus, Adriaan J. M., MacIsaac, Callisto, Bent, Stacey Francine, E-mail: sbent@stanford.edu, Yee, Ye Sheng, and Clemens, Bruce M. Growth, intermixing, and surface phase formation for zinc tin oxide nanolaminates produced by atomic layer deposition. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1116/1.4941411.
Hägglund, Carl, E-mail: carl.hagglund@angstrom.uu.se, Grehl, Thomas, Brongersma, Hidde H., Tanskanen, Jukka T., Mullings, Marja N., Mackus, Adriaan J. M., MacIsaac, Callisto, Bent, Stacey Francine, E-mail: sbent@stanford.edu, Yee, Ye Sheng, & Clemens, Bruce M. Growth, intermixing, and surface phase formation for zinc tin oxide nanolaminates produced by atomic layer deposition. United States. doi:10.1116/1.4941411.
Hägglund, Carl, E-mail: carl.hagglund@angstrom.uu.se, Grehl, Thomas, Brongersma, Hidde H., Tanskanen, Jukka T., Mullings, Marja N., Mackus, Adriaan J. M., MacIsaac, Callisto, Bent, Stacey Francine, E-mail: sbent@stanford.edu, Yee, Ye Sheng, and Clemens, Bruce M. 2016. "Growth, intermixing, and surface phase formation for zinc tin oxide nanolaminates produced by atomic layer deposition". United States. doi:10.1116/1.4941411.
@article{osti_22489810,
title = {Growth, intermixing, and surface phase formation for zinc tin oxide nanolaminates produced by atomic layer deposition},
author = {Hägglund, Carl, E-mail: carl.hagglund@angstrom.uu.se and Grehl, Thomas and Brongersma, Hidde H. and Tanskanen, Jukka T. and Mullings, Marja N. and Mackus, Adriaan J. M. and MacIsaac, Callisto and Bent, Stacey Francine, E-mail: sbent@stanford.edu and Yee, Ye Sheng and Clemens, Bruce M.},
abstractNote = {A broad and expanding range of materials can be produced by atomic layer deposition at relatively low temperatures, including both oxides and metals. For many applications of interest, however, it is desirable to grow more tailored and complex materials such as semiconductors with a certain doping, mixed oxides, and metallic alloys. How well such mixed materials can be accomplished with atomic layer deposition requires knowledge of the conditions under which the resulting films will be mixed, solid solutions, or laminated. The growth and lamination of zinc oxide and tin oxide is studied here by means of the extremely surface sensitive technique of low energy ion scattering, combined with bulk composition and thickness determination, and x-ray diffraction. At the low temperatures used for deposition (150 °C), there is little evidence for atomic scale mixing even with the smallest possible bilayer period, and instead a morphology with small ZnO inclusions in a SnO{sub x} matrix is deduced. Postannealing of such laminates above 400 °C however produces a stable surface phase with a 30% increased density. From the surface stoichiometry, this is likely the inverted spinel of zinc stannate, Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}. Annealing to 800 °C results in films containing crystalline Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}, or multilayered films of crystalline ZnO, Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}, and SnO{sub 2} phases, depending on the bilayer period.},
doi = {10.1116/1.4941411},
journal = {Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology. A, Vacuum, Surfaces and Films},
number = 2,
volume = 34,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 3
}