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Title: Auger recombination in In(Ga)Sb/InAs quantum dots

Abstract

We report on the epitaxial formation of type II In{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}Sb/InAs and InSb/InAs quantum dot ensembles using metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. Employing scanning tunneling spectroscopy, we determine spatial quantum dot dimensions smaller than the de Broglie wavelength of InGaSb, which strongly indicates a three dimensional hole confinement. Photoluminescence spectroscopy at low temperatures yields an enhanced radiative recombination in the mid-infrared regime at energies of 170–200 meV. This luminescence displays a strong excitation power dependence with a blueshift indicating a filling of excited quantum dot hole states. Furthermore, a rate equation model is used to extract the Auger recombination coefficient from the power dependent intensity at 77 K yielding values of 1.35 × 10{sup −28} cm{sup 6}/s for In{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}Sb/InAs quantum dots and 1.47 × 10{sup −27} cm{sup 6}/s for InSb/InAs quantum dots, which is about one order of magnitude lower as previously obtained values for InGaSb superlattices.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;  [1]; ;  [2]
  1. School of Information and Communication Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Electrum 229, S-164 40 Kista (Sweden)
  2. Acreo AB, Electrum 236. 16440 Kista (Sweden)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22395665
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Applied Physics Letters; Journal Volume: 106; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: (c) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; DE BROGLIE WAVELENGTH; EMISSION SPECTROSCOPY; EXCITATION; GALLIUM COMPOUNDS; HOLES; INDIUM ANTIMONIDES; INDIUM ARSENIDES; ORGANOMETALLIC COMPOUNDS; PHOTOLUMINESCENCE; QUANTUM DOTS; REACTION KINETICS; RECOMBINATION; SUPERLATTICES; THREE-DIMENSIONAL LATTICES; TUNNEL EFFECT; VAPOR PHASE EPITAXY

Citation Formats

Zabel, T., E-mail: zabel@kth.se, Reuterskiöld Hedlund, C., Gustafsson, O., Berggren, J., Ernerheim-Jokumsen, C., Soldemo, M., Weissenrieder, J., Götelid, M., Hammar, M., Karim, A., and Wang, Q. Auger recombination in In(Ga)Sb/InAs quantum dots. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4905455.
Zabel, T., E-mail: zabel@kth.se, Reuterskiöld Hedlund, C., Gustafsson, O., Berggren, J., Ernerheim-Jokumsen, C., Soldemo, M., Weissenrieder, J., Götelid, M., Hammar, M., Karim, A., & Wang, Q. Auger recombination in In(Ga)Sb/InAs quantum dots. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4905455.
Zabel, T., E-mail: zabel@kth.se, Reuterskiöld Hedlund, C., Gustafsson, O., Berggren, J., Ernerheim-Jokumsen, C., Soldemo, M., Weissenrieder, J., Götelid, M., Hammar, M., Karim, A., and Wang, Q. Mon . "Auger recombination in In(Ga)Sb/InAs quantum dots". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4905455.
@article{osti_22395665,
title = {Auger recombination in In(Ga)Sb/InAs quantum dots},
author = {Zabel, T., E-mail: zabel@kth.se and Reuterskiöld Hedlund, C. and Gustafsson, O. and Berggren, J. and Ernerheim-Jokumsen, C. and Soldemo, M. and Weissenrieder, J. and Götelid, M. and Hammar, M. and Karim, A. and Wang, Q.},
abstractNote = {We report on the epitaxial formation of type II In{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}Sb/InAs and InSb/InAs quantum dot ensembles using metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. Employing scanning tunneling spectroscopy, we determine spatial quantum dot dimensions smaller than the de Broglie wavelength of InGaSb, which strongly indicates a three dimensional hole confinement. Photoluminescence spectroscopy at low temperatures yields an enhanced radiative recombination in the mid-infrared regime at energies of 170–200 meV. This luminescence displays a strong excitation power dependence with a blueshift indicating a filling of excited quantum dot hole states. Furthermore, a rate equation model is used to extract the Auger recombination coefficient from the power dependent intensity at 77 K yielding values of 1.35 × 10{sup −28} cm{sup 6}/s for In{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}Sb/InAs quantum dots and 1.47 × 10{sup −27} cm{sup 6}/s for InSb/InAs quantum dots, which is about one order of magnitude lower as previously obtained values for InGaSb superlattices.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4905455},
journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
number = 1,
volume = 106,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 05 00:00:00 EST 2015},
month = {Mon Jan 05 00:00:00 EST 2015}
}
  • We have derived the Auger recombination coefficients, as a function of temperature, for In{sub 0.4}Ga{sub 0.6}N/GaN self-organized quantum dots from large-signal modulation measurements made on lasers in which the quantum dots form the gain media. The value of C{sub a} = 1.3 ±0.2 × 10{sup −31} cm{sup 6} s{sup −1} at room temperature and the coefficient decreases with increase of temperature.
  • We report experimental studies of temperature-dependent Auger recombination coefficients in self-assembled quantum dots. The results are based on a study of temperature-dependent large signal modulation experiments made on self-organized In{sub 0.4}Ga{sub 0.6}As/GaAs quantum dot lasers. The Auger coefficient decreases from {approx}8 x 10{sup -29}cm{sup 6}/s at 100 K to {approx}4 x 10{sup -29}cm{sup 6}/s at 300 K. This behavior, which is different from results in other higher-dimensional systems, is explained in terms of the temperature dependence of electron-hole scattering in the dots and contribution from higher lying states in the dot and adjoining layers. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.
  • The optical and structural properties of In{sub 0.15}Ga{sub 0.85}As/In{sub x}Al{sub y}Ga{sub z}As/GaAs quantum wells with embedded InAs quantum dots (QDs) were investigated by the photoluminescence (PL), its temperature dependence, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and high resolution (HR-XRD) methods in dependence on the composition of capping In{sub x}Al{sub y}Ga{sub z}As layers. Three types of capping layers (Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As, Al{sub 0.10}Ga{sub 0.75}In{sub 0.15}As, and Al{sub 0.40}Ga{sub 0.45}In{sub 0.15}As) have been used and their impact on PL parameters has been compared. Temperature dependences of PL peak positions in QDs have been analyzed in the range of 10–500 K and to compare with the temperaturemore » shrinkage of band gap in the bulk InAs crystal. This permits to investigate the QD material composition and the efficiency of Ga(Al)/In inter diffusion in dependence on the type of In{sub x}Al{sub y}Ga{sub z}As capping layers. XRD and HR-XRD used to control the composition of quantum well layers. It is shown that QD material composition is closer to InAs in the structure with the Al{sub 0.40}Ga{sub 0.45}In{sub 0.15}As capping layer and for this structure the emission 1.3 μm is detected at 300 K. The thermal decay of the integrated PL intensity has been studied as well. It is revealed the fast 10{sup 2}-fold thermal decay of the integrated PL intensity in the structure with the Al{sub 0.10}Ga{sub 0.75}In{sub 0.15}As capping layer in comparison with 10-fold decay in other structures. Finally, the reasons of PL spectrum transformation and the mechanism of PL thermal decay for different capping layers have been analyzed and discussed.« less
  • Nano-agglomerates of In(Sb,As) in InAs, (In,Ga)Sb in GaSb, and (Cd,Zn,Mn)Se in (Zn,Mn)Se are classified by transmission electron microscopy. In scanning transmission electron microscopy, atomic resolution Z-contrast images reveal different modes of internal compositional modulation on the atomic length scale, resulting for all three material systems in nano-agglomerates of an appropriate size that may constitute a new type of quantum dot. For other nano-agglomerates of In(Sb,As) in InAs and (In,Ga)Sb in GaSb, we observed a second type of nanoscale ordering that results in nano-agglomerates with an internal compositional modulation on a length scale of a few nm. Both types of compositionalmore » modulation are discussed as having arisen from a rather long-term structural response to a combination of internal and external strains. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.« less
  • The formation of a quaternary InGaAsSb alloy is shown to occur in the core of epitaxial GaSb capped InAs/GaAs quantum dots emitting at 1.3 ?m. The existence of the four constituent elements is demonstrated by using spatially resolved low-loss electron energy loss spectroscopy and aberration-corrected high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy. The intermixing process giving rise to the formation of this quaternary alloy takes place despite the large miscibility gap between InAs and GaSb binary compounds, probably driven by the existence of strain in the quantum dots.