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Title: Measurement of the refractive index dispersion of As{sub 2}Se{sub 3} bulk glass and thin films prior to and after laser irradiation and annealing using prism coupling in the near- and mid-infrared spectral range

Abstract

The prism coupling technique has been utilized to measure the refractive index in the near- and mid-IR spectral region of chalcogenide glasses in bulk and thin film form. A commercial system (Metricon model 2010) has been modified with additional laser sources, detectors, and a new GaP prism to allow the measurement of refractive index dispersion over the 1.5-10.6 {mu}m range. The instrumental error was found to be {+-}0.001 refractive index units across the entire wavelength region examined. Measurements on thermally evaporated AMTIR2 thin films confirmed that (i) the film deposition process provides thin films with reduced index compared to that of the bulk glass used as a target, (ii) annealing of the films increases the refractive index of the film to the level of the bulk glass used as a target to create it, and (iii) it is possible to locally increase the refractive index of the chalcogenide glass using laser exposure at 632.8 nm.

Authors:
; ; ;  [1]; ; ; ;  [2]
  1. School of Materials Science and Engineering/COMSET, Clemson, South Carolina 29640 (United States)
  2. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22062316
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Review of Scientific Instruments; Journal Volume: 82; Journal Issue: 5; Other Information: (c) 2011 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; ANNEALING; ARSENIC SELENIDES; GALLIUM PHOSPHIDES; INFRARED SPECTRA; LASER RADIATION; LASERS; OPTICAL DISPERSION; PRISMS; REFRACTIVE INDEX; THIN FILMS

Citation Formats

Carlie, N., Petit, L., Musgraves, J. D., Richardson, K., Anheier, N. C. Jr., Qiao, H. A., Bernacki, B., and Phillips, M. C. Measurement of the refractive index dispersion of As{sub 2}Se{sub 3} bulk glass and thin films prior to and after laser irradiation and annealing using prism coupling in the near- and mid-infrared spectral range. United States: N. p., 2011. Web. doi:10.1063/1.3587616.
Carlie, N., Petit, L., Musgraves, J. D., Richardson, K., Anheier, N. C. Jr., Qiao, H. A., Bernacki, B., & Phillips, M. C. Measurement of the refractive index dispersion of As{sub 2}Se{sub 3} bulk glass and thin films prior to and after laser irradiation and annealing using prism coupling in the near- and mid-infrared spectral range. United States. doi:10.1063/1.3587616.
Carlie, N., Petit, L., Musgraves, J. D., Richardson, K., Anheier, N. C. Jr., Qiao, H. A., Bernacki, B., and Phillips, M. C. Sun . "Measurement of the refractive index dispersion of As{sub 2}Se{sub 3} bulk glass and thin films prior to and after laser irradiation and annealing using prism coupling in the near- and mid-infrared spectral range". United States. doi:10.1063/1.3587616.
@article{osti_22062316,
title = {Measurement of the refractive index dispersion of As{sub 2}Se{sub 3} bulk glass and thin films prior to and after laser irradiation and annealing using prism coupling in the near- and mid-infrared spectral range},
author = {Carlie, N. and Petit, L. and Musgraves, J. D. and Richardson, K. and Anheier, N. C. Jr. and Qiao, H. A. and Bernacki, B. and Phillips, M. C.},
abstractNote = {The prism coupling technique has been utilized to measure the refractive index in the near- and mid-IR spectral region of chalcogenide glasses in bulk and thin film form. A commercial system (Metricon model 2010) has been modified with additional laser sources, detectors, and a new GaP prism to allow the measurement of refractive index dispersion over the 1.5-10.6 {mu}m range. The instrumental error was found to be {+-}0.001 refractive index units across the entire wavelength region examined. Measurements on thermally evaporated AMTIR2 thin films confirmed that (i) the film deposition process provides thin films with reduced index compared to that of the bulk glass used as a target, (ii) annealing of the films increases the refractive index of the film to the level of the bulk glass used as a target to create it, and (iii) it is possible to locally increase the refractive index of the chalcogenide glass using laser exposure at 632.8 nm.},
doi = {10.1063/1.3587616},
journal = {Review of Scientific Instruments},
number = 5,
volume = 82,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun May 15 00:00:00 EDT 2011},
month = {Sun May 15 00:00:00 EDT 2011}
}
  • The prism coupling technique has been utilized to measure the refractive index in the near- and mid-IR spectral region of chalcogenide glasses in bulk and thin film form. A commercial system (Metricon model 2010) has been modified with additional laser sources, detectors, and a new GaP prism to allow the measurement of refractive index dispersion over the 1.5–10.6 μm range. The instrumental error was found to be ±0.001 refractive index units across the entire wavelength region examined. Measurements on thermally evaporated AMTIR2 thin films confirmed that (i) the film deposition process provides thin films with reduced index compared to thatmore » of the bulk glass used as a target, (ii) annealing of the films increases the refractive index of the film to the level of the bulk glass used as a target to create it, and (iii) it is possible to locally increase the refractive index of the chalcogenide glass using laser exposure at 632.8 nm.« less
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  • Binary diffraction gratings in As{sub 2}S{sub 3} films were prepared with the aid of an electron beam. The dose of the electrons was varied. The gratings were read with a HeNe laser, and the zero-order and first-order diffraction efficiencies were noted. Rigorous diffraction theory was used to give a homogeneous approximation for the refractive index change. Reactive ion etching was applied to reduce the thickness of the film, and a new value for the refractive index change was evaluated. The refractive index change versus film thickness dependence was found to be linear at low electron doses and Gaussian shaped atmore » higher doses. Through a simple mathematical analysis, the absolute value of the refractive index was determined as a function of the position inside the film. At higher doses, the refractive index change was found to have a maximum value of 3{percent}, approximately 1.2 {mu}m from the film surface. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}« less
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