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Title: The influence of substrate temperature and Al mobility on the microstructural evolution of magnetron sputtered ternary Ti-Al-N thin films

Abstract

Ternary Ti-Al-N films were deposited onto Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0001) substrates by reactive cosputtering from elemental Ti and Al targets and analyzed by in situ and ex situ x-ray scattering, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. The deposition parameters were set to values that yield Ti:Al:N ratios of 2:1:1 and 4:1:3 at room temperature. 2TiAlN depositions at 675 deg. C result in epitaxial Ti{sub 2}AlN growth with basal planes parallel to the substrate surface. Nominal 4TiAl3N depositions at 675 deg. C and above, however, yield domain growth of TiN and Ti{sub 2}AlN due to Al loss to the vacuum. Depositions at a lower temperature of 600 deg. C yield films with correct 4:1:3 stoichiometry, but Ti{sub 4}AlN{sub 3} formation is prevented, supposedly by insufficient adatom mobility. Instead, an incoherent Ti{sub n+1}AlN{sub n} structure with random twinned stacking sequences n is obtained that exhibits both basal plane orientations parallel and nearly perpendicular to the substrate interface. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy shows that in contrast to stoichiometric nitrides the Al is metallically bonded and hence acts as twinning plane within the Ti{sub n+1}AlN{sub n} stackings. Domains with perpendicular basal plane orientation overgrow those with parallel orientation in a competitivemore » growth mode. The resulting morphology is a combination of smooth-surface parallel-basal-plane-oriented domains interrupted by repeated facetted hillocklike features with perpendicular basal plane orientation.« less

Authors:
 [1]; ;  [2]; ; ;  [1]
  1. Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, P.O. Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany)
  2. Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Thin Film Physics Division, Linkoeping University, Linkoeping SE-581 83 (Sweden)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
21361849
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Journal of Applied Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 106; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: DOI: 10.1063/1.3208065; (c) 2009 American Institute of Physics; Journal ID: ISSN 0021-8979
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; ALUMINIUM OXIDES; CRYSTAL GROWTH; EPITAXY; MICROSTRUCTURE; MORPHOLOGY; PHOTOEMISSION; RUTHERFORD BACKSCATTERING SPECTROSCOPY; SPUTTERING; STOICHIOMETRY; SUBSTRATES; TEMPERATURE RANGE 0273-0400 K; THIN FILMS; TITANIUM NITRIDES; TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; VACUUM COATING; X-RAY DIFFRACTION; X-RAY PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY; ALUMINIUM COMPOUNDS; CHALCOGENIDES; COHERENT SCATTERING; CRYSTAL GROWTH METHODS; DEPOSITION; DIFFRACTION; ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; ELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY; EMISSION; FILMS; MICROSCOPY; NITRIDES; NITROGEN COMPOUNDS; OXIDES; OXYGEN COMPOUNDS; PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY; PNICTIDES; SCATTERING; SECONDARY EMISSION; SPECTROSCOPY; SURFACE COATING; TEMPERATURE RANGE; TITANIUM COMPOUNDS; TRANSITION ELEMENT COMPOUNDS

Citation Formats

Beckers, M, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Hoeglund, C, Persson, P. O. A ring ., Hultman, L, Baehtz, C, Martins, R M. S., and Moeller, W. The influence of substrate temperature and Al mobility on the microstructural evolution of magnetron sputtered ternary Ti-Al-N thin films. United States: N. p., 2009. Web. doi:10.1063/1.3208065.
Beckers, M, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Hoeglund, C, Persson, P. O. A ring ., Hultman, L, Baehtz, C, Martins, R M. S., & Moeller, W. The influence of substrate temperature and Al mobility on the microstructural evolution of magnetron sputtered ternary Ti-Al-N thin films. United States. doi:10.1063/1.3208065.
Beckers, M, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Hoeglund, C, Persson, P. O. A ring ., Hultman, L, Baehtz, C, Martins, R M. S., and Moeller, W. Tue . "The influence of substrate temperature and Al mobility on the microstructural evolution of magnetron sputtered ternary Ti-Al-N thin films". United States. doi:10.1063/1.3208065.
@article{osti_21361849,
title = {The influence of substrate temperature and Al mobility on the microstructural evolution of magnetron sputtered ternary Ti-Al-N thin films},
author = {Beckers, M and Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology and Hoeglund, C and Persson, P. O. A ring . and Hultman, L and Baehtz, C and Martins, R M. S. and Moeller, W},
abstractNote = {Ternary Ti-Al-N films were deposited onto Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0001) substrates by reactive cosputtering from elemental Ti and Al targets and analyzed by in situ and ex situ x-ray scattering, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. The deposition parameters were set to values that yield Ti:Al:N ratios of 2:1:1 and 4:1:3 at room temperature. 2TiAlN depositions at 675 deg. C result in epitaxial Ti{sub 2}AlN growth with basal planes parallel to the substrate surface. Nominal 4TiAl3N depositions at 675 deg. C and above, however, yield domain growth of TiN and Ti{sub 2}AlN due to Al loss to the vacuum. Depositions at a lower temperature of 600 deg. C yield films with correct 4:1:3 stoichiometry, but Ti{sub 4}AlN{sub 3} formation is prevented, supposedly by insufficient adatom mobility. Instead, an incoherent Ti{sub n+1}AlN{sub n} structure with random twinned stacking sequences n is obtained that exhibits both basal plane orientations parallel and nearly perpendicular to the substrate interface. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy shows that in contrast to stoichiometric nitrides the Al is metallically bonded and hence acts as twinning plane within the Ti{sub n+1}AlN{sub n} stackings. Domains with perpendicular basal plane orientation overgrow those with parallel orientation in a competitive growth mode. The resulting morphology is a combination of smooth-surface parallel-basal-plane-oriented domains interrupted by repeated facetted hillocklike features with perpendicular basal plane orientation.},
doi = {10.1063/1.3208065},
journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
issn = {0021-8979},
number = 6,
volume = 106,
place = {United States},
year = {2009},
month = {9}
}