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Title: The Hybrid Pixel Single Photon Counting Detector XPAD

Abstract

The XPAD detector is a 2D X-ray imager based on hybrid pixel technology, gathering 38400 pixels on a surface of 68*68 mm2. It is a photon counting detector, with low noise, wide dynamic range and high speed read out, which make it particularly suitable for third generation synchrotron applications, such as diffraction, small angle X-ray scattering or macro-molecular crystallography, but also for small animal imaging. High resolution powder diffraction data and in situ scattering data of crystallization of liquid oxides are presented to illustrate the properties of this detector, resulting in a significant gain in data acquisition time and a capability to follow fast kinetics in real time experiments. The characteristics of the future generation of XPAD detector, which will be available in 2007, are also presented.

Authors:
; ;  [1]; ; ;  [2]; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;  [3]
  1. Synchrotron SOLEIL, L'Orme des Merisiers, Saint Aubin BP 48, 91192 Gif sur Yvette CEDEX (France)
  2. D2AM-CRG/ESRF, 38042 Grenoble and Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, 38042 Grenoble (France)
  3. CPPM-IN2P3, Luminy, 13288 Marseille (France)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
21049209
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: AIP Conference Proceedings; Journal Volume: 879; Journal Issue: 1; Conference: 9. international conference on synchrotron radiation instrumentation, Daegu (Korea, Republic of), 28 May - 2 Jun 2006; Other Information: DOI: 10.1063/1.2436252; (c) 2007 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; CRYSTALLIZATION; CRYSTALLOGRAPHY; DATA ACQUISITION; GAIN; PHOTONS; POWDERS; READOUT SYSTEMS; RESOLUTION; SMALL ANGLE SCATTERING; SYNCHROTRON RADIATION; SYNCHROTRONS; X RADIATION; X-RAY DETECTION; X-RAY DIFFRACTION

Citation Formats

Hustache-Ottini, S., Bordessoule, M., Medjoubi, K., Berar, J.-F., Boudet, N., Caillot, B., Basolo, S., Breugnon, P., Clemens, J.-C., Delpierre, P., Dinkespiler, B., Koudobine, I., Meessen, C., Menouni, M., Morel, C., Pangaud, P., and Vigeolas, E. The Hybrid Pixel Single Photon Counting Detector XPAD. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1063/1.2436252.
Hustache-Ottini, S., Bordessoule, M., Medjoubi, K., Berar, J.-F., Boudet, N., Caillot, B., Basolo, S., Breugnon, P., Clemens, J.-C., Delpierre, P., Dinkespiler, B., Koudobine, I., Meessen, C., Menouni, M., Morel, C., Pangaud, P., & Vigeolas, E. The Hybrid Pixel Single Photon Counting Detector XPAD. United States. doi:10.1063/1.2436252.
Hustache-Ottini, S., Bordessoule, M., Medjoubi, K., Berar, J.-F., Boudet, N., Caillot, B., Basolo, S., Breugnon, P., Clemens, J.-C., Delpierre, P., Dinkespiler, B., Koudobine, I., Meessen, C., Menouni, M., Morel, C., Pangaud, P., and Vigeolas, E. Fri . "The Hybrid Pixel Single Photon Counting Detector XPAD". United States. doi:10.1063/1.2436252.
@article{osti_21049209,
title = {The Hybrid Pixel Single Photon Counting Detector XPAD},
author = {Hustache-Ottini, S. and Bordessoule, M. and Medjoubi, K. and Berar, J.-F. and Boudet, N. and Caillot, B. and Basolo, S. and Breugnon, P. and Clemens, J.-C. and Delpierre, P. and Dinkespiler, B. and Koudobine, I. and Meessen, C. and Menouni, M. and Morel, C. and Pangaud, P. and Vigeolas, E.},
abstractNote = {The XPAD detector is a 2D X-ray imager based on hybrid pixel technology, gathering 38400 pixels on a surface of 68*68 mm2. It is a photon counting detector, with low noise, wide dynamic range and high speed read out, which make it particularly suitable for third generation synchrotron applications, such as diffraction, small angle X-ray scattering or macro-molecular crystallography, but also for small animal imaging. High resolution powder diffraction data and in situ scattering data of crystallization of liquid oxides are presented to illustrate the properties of this detector, resulting in a significant gain in data acquisition time and a capability to follow fast kinetics in real time experiments. The characteristics of the future generation of XPAD detector, which will be available in 2007, are also presented.},
doi = {10.1063/1.2436252},
journal = {AIP Conference Proceedings},
number = 1,
volume = 879,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Jan 19 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Fri Jan 19 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}
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  • Purpose: Detectors with hexagonal pixels require resampling to square pixels for distortion-free display of acquired images. In this work, the presampling modulation transfer function (MTF) of a hexagonal pixel array photon-counting CdTe detector for region-of-interest fluoroscopy was measured and the optimal square pixel size for resampling was determined. Methods: A 0.65mm thick CdTe Schottky sensor capable of concurrently acquiring up to 3 energy-windowed images was operated in a single energy-window mode to include ≥10 KeV photons. The detector had hexagonal pixels with apothem of 30 microns resulting in pixel spacing of 60 and 51.96 microns along the two orthogonal directions.more » Images of a tungsten edge test device acquired under IEC RQA5 conditions were double Hough transformed to identify the edge and numerically differentiated. The presampling MTF was determined from the finely sampled line spread function that accounted for the hexagonal sampling. The optimal square pixel size was determined in two ways; the square pixel size for which the aperture function evaluated at the Nyquist frequencies along the two orthogonal directions matched that from the hexagonal pixel aperture functions, and the square pixel size for which the mean absolute difference between the square and hexagonal aperture functions was minimized over all frequencies up to the Nyquist limit. Results: Evaluation of the aperture functions over the entire frequency range resulted in square pixel size of 53 microns with less than 2% difference from the hexagonal pixel. Evaluation of the aperture functions at Nyquist frequencies alone resulted in 54 microns square pixels. For the photon-counting CdTe detector and after resampling to 53 microns square pixels using quadratic interpolation, the presampling MTF at Nyquist frequency of 9.434 cycles/mm along the two directions were 0.501 and 0.507. Conclusion: Hexagonal pixel array photon-counting CdTe detector after resampling to square pixels provides high-resolution imaging suitable for fluoroscopy.« less