skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Destruction of cyanide waste solutions using chlorine dioxide, ozone and titania sol

Abstract

Increasingly, there are severe environmental controls in the mining industry. Because of lack of technological advances, waste management practices are severely limited. Most of the wastes in the milling industrial effluents are known to contain cyanides and it is recognized that after extraction and recovery of precious metals, substantial amounts of cyanide are delivered to tailings ponds. The toxicity of cyanide creates serious environmental problems. In this paper we describe several methods for the treatment of cyanide solutions. These include: (1) cyanide destruction by oxidation with chlorine dioxide (ClO{sub 2}) in a Gas-Sparged Hydrocyclone (GSH) reactor; (2) destruction of cyanide by ozone (O{sub 3}) using a stirred batch reactor, and finally, (3) the photolysis of cyanide with UV light in presence of titania sol. In all cases excellent performance were observed as measured by the extent and of the destruction.

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20875595
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Waste Management; Journal Volume: 23; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: DOI: 10.1016/S0956-053X(02)00064-8; PII: S0956053X02000648; Copyright (c) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; CHLORINE; CHLORINE OXIDES; CYANIDES; LIQUID WASTES; MILLING; MINERAL INDUSTRY; OXIDATION; OZONE; PHOTOLYSIS; PONDS; SOLS; TAILINGS; TITANIUM OXIDES; TOXICITY; WASTE MANAGEMENT

Citation Formats

Parga, J.R., Shukla, S.S., and Carrillo-Pedroza, F.R. Destruction of cyanide waste solutions using chlorine dioxide, ozone and titania sol. United States: N. p., 2003. Web. doi:10.1016/S0956-053X(02)00064-8.
Parga, J.R., Shukla, S.S., & Carrillo-Pedroza, F.R. Destruction of cyanide waste solutions using chlorine dioxide, ozone and titania sol. United States. doi:10.1016/S0956-053X(02)00064-8.
Parga, J.R., Shukla, S.S., and Carrillo-Pedroza, F.R. 2003. "Destruction of cyanide waste solutions using chlorine dioxide, ozone and titania sol". United States. doi:10.1016/S0956-053X(02)00064-8.
@article{osti_20875595,
title = {Destruction of cyanide waste solutions using chlorine dioxide, ozone and titania sol},
author = {Parga, J.R. and Shukla, S.S. and Carrillo-Pedroza, F.R},
abstractNote = {Increasingly, there are severe environmental controls in the mining industry. Because of lack of technological advances, waste management practices are severely limited. Most of the wastes in the milling industrial effluents are known to contain cyanides and it is recognized that after extraction and recovery of precious metals, substantial amounts of cyanide are delivered to tailings ponds. The toxicity of cyanide creates serious environmental problems. In this paper we describe several methods for the treatment of cyanide solutions. These include: (1) cyanide destruction by oxidation with chlorine dioxide (ClO{sub 2}) in a Gas-Sparged Hydrocyclone (GSH) reactor; (2) destruction of cyanide by ozone (O{sub 3}) using a stirred batch reactor, and finally, (3) the photolysis of cyanide with UV light in presence of titania sol. In all cases excellent performance were observed as measured by the extent and of the destruction.},
doi = {10.1016/S0956-053X(02)00064-8},
journal = {Waste Management},
number = 2,
volume = 23,
place = {United States},
year = 2003,
month = 7
}
  • The annual mean and the annual amplitude of ozone have been derived from ozone measurements from the SBUV and SBUV/2 spectrometers on board the Nimbus-7 and NOAA-11 satellites. These values differ significantly from values calculated using a two-dimensional model of stratospheric photochemistry and dynamics with standard chemistry. The authors have found that the differences between the calculated and data-derived values are considerably improved by changing the partitioning in the Cl[sub y] family to create a larger reservoir of HCl and reducing ClO. This is accomplished by including a channel for the products HCl+O[sub 2], from the reaction ClO+OH in additionmore » to the products Cl+HO[sub 2]. This partitioning also improves the agreement between the calculated and measured values or ClO/HCl ratio. 18 refs., 6 figs.« less
  • The feasibility of using negative ion chemistry to mitigate stratospheric ozone depletion by chlorine-containing radicals, as proposed recently, is addressed. Previous in situ measurements of the negative ion composition of the stratosphere show that chlorine-containing ions represent only a small fraction of total ions. New measurements of the negative ion temporal evolution in the stratosphere show that the fractional abundance of chlorine-containing ions is never greater than 1 percent at any time in the ion evolution. On the basis of these and other arguments, using negative ion chemistry to mitigate ozone depletion by chlorine-containing compounds is not feasible.
  • The authors make use of measured BrO radical densities, and ClO radical densities inferred from hydrocarbon measurements, made in the arctic troposphere, to calculate ozone depletion rates which would be expected in the spring. These rates compare favorably with field measurements.
  • With the application of chlorine gas in drinking water treatment processing after the turn of this Century, great success was achieved. With the advance of analytical techniques in the field of trace matter, Rook (1) as well as Bellar, Lichtenberg and Kroner (2) succeeded in 1974 to establish the presence of chloroform and other chlorinated compounds in treated drinking water, namely as the result of chlorination. During tests to minimize the problems of chloroform, of chlorite and chlorate by the simultaneous addition of chlorine and chlorine dioxide, it was discovered that a small amount of chlorine dioxide was sufficient tomore » reduce drastically the formation of chloroform and other trihalomethanes. The aim of future treatment techniques in Zurich is the preoxidation with ozone in place of chlorine and chlorine dioxide. Considering the mode of effect of the various oxidizing agents and the longer flow time through the biological activated carbon filters (as a result of the ozonation), ozone is - according to studies made by Grob and the Zurich Water Supply with ozonized Lake Zurich water - the most economical oxidation process with the best effect, i.e., without formation of toxic or carcinogenic substances.« less
  • Purified Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts were exposed to ozone, chlorine dioxide, chlorine, and monochloramine. Excystation and mouse infectivity were comparatively evaluated to assess oocyst viability. Ozone and chlorine dioxide more effectively inactivated oocysts than chlorine and monochloramine did. Greater than 90% inactivation as measured by infectivity was achieved by treating oocysts with 1 ppm of ozone (1 mg/liter) for 5 min. Exposure to 1.3 ppm of chlorine dioxide yielded 90% inactivation after 1 h, while 80 ppm of chlorine and 80 ppm of monochloramine required approximately 90 min for 90% inactivation. The data indicate that C. parvum oocysts are 30 timesmore » more resistant to ozone and 14 times more resistant to chlorine dioxide than Giardia cysts exposed to these disinfectants under the same conditions. With the possible exception of ozone, the use of disinfectants alone should not be expected to inactivate C. parvum oocysts in drinking water.« less