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Title: Utilizing intake-air oxygen-enrichment technology to reduce cold- phase emissions

Abstract

Oxygen-enriched combustion is a proven, serious considered technique to reduce exhaust hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from automotive gasoline engines. This paper presents the cold-phase emissions reduction results of using oxygen-enriched intake air containing about 23% and 25% oxygen (by volume) in a vehicle powered by a spark-ignition (SI) engine. Both engineout and converter-out emissions data were collected by following the standard federal test procedure (FTP). Converter-out emissions data were also obtained employing the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) ``Off-Cycle`` test. Test results indicate that the engine-out CO emissions during the cold phase (bag 1) were reduced by about 46 and 50%, and HC by about 33 and 43%, using nominal 23 and 25% oxygen-enriched air compared to ambient air (21% oxygen by volume), respectively. However, the corresponding oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) emissions were increased by about 56 and 79%, respectively. Time-resolved emissions data indicate that both HC and CO emissions were reduced considerably during the initial 127 s of the cold-phase FTP, without any increase in NO, emissions in the first 25 s. Hydrocarbon speciation results indicate that all major toxic pollutants, including ozone-forming specific reactivity factors, such as maximum incremental reactivity (NUR) and maximum ozonemore » incremental reactivity (MOIR), were reduced considerably with oxygen-enrichment. Based on these results, it seems that using oxygen-enriched intake air during the cold-phase FTP could potentially reduce HC and CO emissions sufficiently to meet future emissions standards. Off-cycle, converter-out, weighted-average emissions results show that both HC and CO emissions were reduced by about 60 to 75% with 23 or 25% oxygen-enrichment, but the accompanying NO{sub x}, emissions were much higher than those with the ambient air.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1];  [2];  [3]
  1. Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)
  2. Autoresearch Labs., Inc., Chicago, IL (United States)
  3. National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
197806
Report Number(s):
ANL/ES/CP-87623; CONF-9510283-1
ON: DE96004811
DOE Contract Number:
W-31109-ENG-38
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Canadian Dam Safety Association conference, Banff (Canada), Oct 1995; Other Information: PBD: [1995]
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
33 ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS; INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES; OXYGEN ENRICHMENT; HYDROCARBONS; AIR POLLUTION CONTROL; CARBON MONOXIDE; AUTOMOBILES; EXHAUST GASES; COMBUSTION KINETICS; CATALYTIC CONVERTERS

Citation Formats

Poola, R.B., Ng, H.K., Sekar, R.R., Baudino, J.H., and Colucci, C.P. Utilizing intake-air oxygen-enrichment technology to reduce cold- phase emissions. United States: N. p., 1995. Web.
Poola, R.B., Ng, H.K., Sekar, R.R., Baudino, J.H., & Colucci, C.P. Utilizing intake-air oxygen-enrichment technology to reduce cold- phase emissions. United States.
Poola, R.B., Ng, H.K., Sekar, R.R., Baudino, J.H., and Colucci, C.P. Sun . "Utilizing intake-air oxygen-enrichment technology to reduce cold- phase emissions". United States. doi:. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/197806.
@article{osti_197806,
title = {Utilizing intake-air oxygen-enrichment technology to reduce cold- phase emissions},
author = {Poola, R.B. and Ng, H.K. and Sekar, R.R. and Baudino, J.H. and Colucci, C.P.},
abstractNote = {Oxygen-enriched combustion is a proven, serious considered technique to reduce exhaust hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from automotive gasoline engines. This paper presents the cold-phase emissions reduction results of using oxygen-enriched intake air containing about 23% and 25% oxygen (by volume) in a vehicle powered by a spark-ignition (SI) engine. Both engineout and converter-out emissions data were collected by following the standard federal test procedure (FTP). Converter-out emissions data were also obtained employing the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) ``Off-Cycle`` test. Test results indicate that the engine-out CO emissions during the cold phase (bag 1) were reduced by about 46 and 50%, and HC by about 33 and 43%, using nominal 23 and 25% oxygen-enriched air compared to ambient air (21% oxygen by volume), respectively. However, the corresponding oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) emissions were increased by about 56 and 79%, respectively. Time-resolved emissions data indicate that both HC and CO emissions were reduced considerably during the initial 127 s of the cold-phase FTP, without any increase in NO, emissions in the first 25 s. Hydrocarbon speciation results indicate that all major toxic pollutants, including ozone-forming specific reactivity factors, such as maximum incremental reactivity (NUR) and maximum ozone incremental reactivity (MOIR), were reduced considerably with oxygen-enrichment. Based on these results, it seems that using oxygen-enriched intake air during the cold-phase FTP could potentially reduce HC and CO emissions sufficiently to meet future emissions standards. Off-cycle, converter-out, weighted-average emissions results show that both HC and CO emissions were reduced by about 60 to 75% with 23 or 25% oxygen-enrichment, but the accompanying NO{sub x}, emissions were much higher than those with the ambient air.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Dec 31 00:00:00 EST 1995},
month = {Sun Dec 31 00:00:00 EST 1995}
}

Conference:
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  • Oxygen-enriched combustion is a proven, seriously considered technique to reduce exhaust hydrocarbons (HC) and CO emissions from automotive gasoline engines. This paper presents the cold-phase emissions reduction results of using oxygen-enriched intake air containing about 23% and 25% oxygen (by volume) in a vehicle power3ed by a spark-ignition (SI) engine. Both engine-out and converter-out emissions data were collected by following the standard federal test procedure (FTP). Converter-out emissions data were also obtained employing the US EPA`s Off-Cycle test. Test results indicate that the engine-out CO emissions during the cold phase (bag 1) were reduced by about 46 and 50%, andmore » HC by about 33 and 43%, using nominal 23 and 25% oxygen-enriched air compared to ambient air, respectively. However, the corresponding emissions were increased by about 56 and 79%, respectively. Time-resolved emissions data indicate that both HC and CO emissions were reduced considerably during the initial 127 s of the cold-phase FTP, without any increase in NO{sub x} emissions in the first 25 s. Hydrocarbon speciation results indicate that all major toxic pollutants, including ozone-forming specific reactivity factors, such as maximum incremental reactivity and maximum ozone incremental reactivity, were reduced considerably with oxygen-enrichment. Based on these results, it seems that using oxygen-enriched intake air during the cold-phase FTP could potentially reduce HC and CO emissions sufficiently to meet future emissions standards. Off-cycle, converter-out, weighted-average emissions results show that both HC and CO emissions were reduced by about 60 to 75% with 23 or 25% oxygen-enrichment, but the accompanying NO{sub x} emissions were much higher than those with the ambient air.« less
  • An oxygen-enriched air intake control system for an internal combustion engine includes air directing apparatus to control the air flow into the intake of the engine. During normal operation of the engine, ambient air flowing from an air filter of the engine flows through the air directing apparatus into the intake of the engine. In order to decrease the amount of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions that tend to be produced by the engine during a short period of time after the engine is started, the air directing apparatus diverts for a short period of time following themore » start up of the engine at least a portion of the ambient air from the air filter through a secondary path. The secondary path includes a selectively permeable membrane through which the diverted portion of the ambient air flows. The selectively permeable membrane separates nitrogen and oxygen from the diverted air so that oxygen enriched air containing from about 23% to 25% oxygen by volume is supplied to the intake of the engine.« less
  • The oxygen content in the ambient air drawn by combustion engines can be increased by polymer membranes. The authors have previously demonstrated that 23 to 25% (concentration by volume) oxygen-enriched intake air can reduce hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), air toxics, and ozone-forming potential (OFP) from flexible-fueled vehicles (FFVs) that use gasoline or M85. When oxygen-enriched air was used only during the initial start-up and warm-up periods, the emission levels of all three regulated pollutants [CO, nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC), and NO{sub x}] were lower than the U.S. EPA Tier II (year 2004) standards (without adjusting for catalyst deterioration factors). Inmore » the present work, an air separation membrane module was installed on the intake of a 2.5-L FFV and tested at idle and free acceleration to demonstrate the oxygen-enrichment concept for initial start-up and warm-up periods. A bench-scale, test set-up was developed to evaluate the air separation membrane characteristics for engine applications. On the basis of prototype bench tests and from vehicle tests, the additional power requirements and module size for operation of the membrane during the initial period of the cold-phase, FTP-75 cycle were evaluated. A prototype membrane module (27 in. long, 3 in. in diameter) supplying about 23% oxygen-enriched air in the engine intake only during the initial start-up and warm-up periods of a 2.5-L FFV requires additional power (blower) of less than one horsepower. With advances in air separation membranes to develop compact modules, oxygen enrichment of combustion air has the potential of becoming a more practical technique for controlling exhaust emissions from light-duty vehicles.« less
  • This paper presents results of emission tests of a flexible fuel vehicle (FFV) powered by an SI engine, fueled by M85 (methanol), and supplied with oxygen-enriched intake air containing 21, 23, and 25 vol% O2. Engine-out total hydrocarbons (THCs) and unburned methanol were considerably reduced in the entire FTP cycle when the O2 content of the intake air was either 23 or 25%. However, CO emissions did not vary much, and NOx emissions were higher. HCHO emissions were reduced by 53% in bag 1, 84% in bag 2, and 59% in bag 3 of the FTP cycle with 25% oxygen-enrichedmore » intake air. During cold-phase FTP,reductions of 42% in THCs, 40% in unburned methanol, 60% in nonmethane hydrocarbons, and 45% in nonmethane organic gases (NMOGs) were observed with 25% enriched air; NO{sub x} emissions increased by 78%. Converter-out emissions were also reduced with enriched air but to a lesser degree. FFVs operating on M85 that use 25% enriched air during only the initial 127 s of cold-phase FTP or that use 23 or 25% enriched air during only cold-phase FTP can meet the reactivity-adjusted NMOG, CO, NO{sub x}, and HCHO emission standards of the transitional low-emission vehicle.« less
  • The multiple spaces equation of ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 makes it possible to bring in a smaller fraction of outdoor air than that dictated by the critical space. This paper develops an analytical proof that increasing the primary airflow rate to the critical space reduces the outdoor airflow rate required to meet ventilation requirements. For systems employing fan-powered boxes, where more than one box is critical, a systematic procedure for incrementally increasing the primary air is currently required. Also presented are equations necessary to undertake such a systematic procedure of incrementally increasing the primary air for situations typically encountered in themore » operation of fan-powered variable-air-volume systems.« less