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Title: Update on Investigations of Viability of Cold Spray and FSW as a Spent Nuclear Fuel Dry Storage Canister Mitigation Tool

Abstract

The purpose of this work is to investigate the use of cold spray and friction stir welding or processing (FSW/P) for repair and mitigation of chloride-induced stress corrosion cracking (CISCC) in dry cask storage system (DCSS) canisters to ensure integrity far beyond their original license period. This report provides a viability analysis of cold spray and friction stir welding for repair and fabrication of DCSS canisters. This report presents experimental work and a research strategy to optimize and evaluate cold spray and FSW/P for CISCC resistance. The literature reports that the following three conditions must exist for CISCC to occur: tensile stress, corrosive environment, and susceptible material. These conditions must be understood and accounted for while evaluating CISCC susceptibility. Furthermore, non-obvious factors, such as surface conditions and geometric confinement, can dramatically increase the intensity of one or more of the three listed conditions for CISCC. Arc welding should be considered for either temporary or permanent repair when combined with a mitigation technology. It is known that alloys used in the existing inventory of spent nuclear fuel storage canisters become sensitized in areas around fusion welds. Technologies, such as cold spray or FSW, can mitigate the sensitization caused by fusion welds.more » FSW/P and cold spray, potential alternatives for fabrication and repair, are solid-phase processes. No melting occurs and the energy input can be controlled such that no harm is done to the base metal during these processes. FSW/P should be considered for use in new fabrication of canisters and repair of existing canisters. Low heat input and grain refinement result in material with improved mechanical properties and comparable generalized corrosion performance relative to base metal. FSW/P offers the potential of through-thickness CISCC resistance. Cold spray should be considered for production, mitigation, and repair of canisters. Cold spray has demonstrated the ability to deposit stainless steel, Inconel alloys, and other alloys on stainless steel 304L such that galvanic potential is matched and resistance to pitting is improved. The technical basis for cold spray mitigation and repair within the overpack using remote robotic equipment is established. A non-obvious application to the research community is the sealing of crevices. All reported instances of CISCC in the fielded nuclear applications were associated with crevice corrosion. This can be avoided by cold spraying to seal crevices. The bulk of the work planned for FY 2020 will be generating coupons for CISCC testing by collaborative projects at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories. First an exploratory study will be executed that will include screening studies and process optimization. This task will identify the effect of process parameters on microstructure and CISCC resistance. Optimized parameters will be used to produce a smaller number of coupons for full testing and evaluation. Test methods for evaluating CISCC resistance must meet the following criteria: (1) normalized surface geometry and exposed process microstructure, (2) account for residual stresses, (3) be in a controlled and appropriate test environment, and (4) be numerically quantifiable and repeatable. Failure to meet these criteria could lead to results that cannot be used for comparative analysis of processes and materials.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1]
  1. BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1580110
Report Number(s):
PNNL-29217
DOE Contract Number:  
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
friction stir, Cold spray, CISCC

Citation Formats

Ross, Kenneth A., and Alabi, Morotolaoluwa. Update on Investigations of Viability of Cold Spray and FSW as a Spent Nuclear Fuel Dry Storage Canister Mitigation Tool. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.2172/1580110.
Ross, Kenneth A., & Alabi, Morotolaoluwa. Update on Investigations of Viability of Cold Spray and FSW as a Spent Nuclear Fuel Dry Storage Canister Mitigation Tool. United States. https://doi.org/10.2172/1580110
Ross, Kenneth A., and Alabi, Morotolaoluwa. Mon . "Update on Investigations of Viability of Cold Spray and FSW as a Spent Nuclear Fuel Dry Storage Canister Mitigation Tool". United States. https://doi.org/10.2172/1580110. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1580110.
@article{osti_1580110,
title = {Update on Investigations of Viability of Cold Spray and FSW as a Spent Nuclear Fuel Dry Storage Canister Mitigation Tool},
author = {Ross, Kenneth A. and Alabi, Morotolaoluwa},
abstractNote = {The purpose of this work is to investigate the use of cold spray and friction stir welding or processing (FSW/P) for repair and mitigation of chloride-induced stress corrosion cracking (CISCC) in dry cask storage system (DCSS) canisters to ensure integrity far beyond their original license period. This report provides a viability analysis of cold spray and friction stir welding for repair and fabrication of DCSS canisters. This report presents experimental work and a research strategy to optimize and evaluate cold spray and FSW/P for CISCC resistance. The literature reports that the following three conditions must exist for CISCC to occur: tensile stress, corrosive environment, and susceptible material. These conditions must be understood and accounted for while evaluating CISCC susceptibility. Furthermore, non-obvious factors, such as surface conditions and geometric confinement, can dramatically increase the intensity of one or more of the three listed conditions for CISCC. Arc welding should be considered for either temporary or permanent repair when combined with a mitigation technology. It is known that alloys used in the existing inventory of spent nuclear fuel storage canisters become sensitized in areas around fusion welds. Technologies, such as cold spray or FSW, can mitigate the sensitization caused by fusion welds. FSW/P and cold spray, potential alternatives for fabrication and repair, are solid-phase processes. No melting occurs and the energy input can be controlled such that no harm is done to the base metal during these processes. FSW/P should be considered for use in new fabrication of canisters and repair of existing canisters. Low heat input and grain refinement result in material with improved mechanical properties and comparable generalized corrosion performance relative to base metal. FSW/P offers the potential of through-thickness CISCC resistance. Cold spray should be considered for production, mitigation, and repair of canisters. Cold spray has demonstrated the ability to deposit stainless steel, Inconel alloys, and other alloys on stainless steel 304L such that galvanic potential is matched and resistance to pitting is improved. The technical basis for cold spray mitigation and repair within the overpack using remote robotic equipment is established. A non-obvious application to the research community is the sealing of crevices. All reported instances of CISCC in the fielded nuclear applications were associated with crevice corrosion. This can be avoided by cold spraying to seal crevices. The bulk of the work planned for FY 2020 will be generating coupons for CISCC testing by collaborative projects at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories. First an exploratory study will be executed that will include screening studies and process optimization. This task will identify the effect of process parameters on microstructure and CISCC resistance. Optimized parameters will be used to produce a smaller number of coupons for full testing and evaluation. Test methods for evaluating CISCC resistance must meet the following criteria: (1) normalized surface geometry and exposed process microstructure, (2) account for residual stresses, (3) be in a controlled and appropriate test environment, and (4) be numerically quantifiable and repeatable. Failure to meet these criteria could lead to results that cannot be used for comparative analysis of processes and materials.},
doi = {10.2172/1580110},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1580110}, journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {9}
}