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Title: Pool Fire and Fireball Experiments in Support of the US DOE/DOT/TC Crude Oil Characterization Research Study.

Abstract

This report describes an experimental study of physical, chemical, and combustion characteristics of selected North American crude oils, and how these associate with thermal hazard distances resulting from pool fires and fireballs. The emergence of large volumes of tight oils within the North American Transportation system over the last decade coupled with several high-profile train accidents involving crude oils, has raised questions about the role of oil properties in general, and tight oils in particular, in affecting the severity of hazard outcomes in related crude oil fires. The objective of the pool fire experiments is to measure parameters necessary for hazard evaluation, namely, burn rate, surface emissive power, flame height, and heat flux to an engulfed object. To carry out this objective, a series of 2-m diameter indoor and 5-m diameter outdoor experiments were performed. The objective of the fireball experiments is to measure parameters required for hazard evaluation which include fireball maximum diameter, height at maximum diameter, duration, and surface emissive power using 400-gallons of crude oil per test. The crude oil samples used for the experiments were obtained from several U.S. locations, including including “tight” oils from the Bakken region of North Dakota and Permian region of Texas,more » and a conventionally produced oil from the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve stockpile. These samples spanned a measurable range of vapor pressure (VPCRx(T)) and light ends content representative of U.S. domestic conventional and tight crudes. The results indicate that all the oils tested here have comparable thermal hazard distances and the measured properties are consistent with other alkane-based hydrocarbon liquids. The similarity of pool fire and fireball burn characteristics pertinent to thermal hazard outcomes of the three oils studied indicate that vapor pressure is not a statistically significant factor in affecting these outcomes. Thus, the results from this work do not support creating a distinction for crude oils based on vapor pressure with regards to these combustion events.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Fossil Energy (FE), Oil and Natural Gas (FE-30), Office of Fossil Energy (FE)
OSTI Identifier:
1557808
Report Number(s):
SAND2019-9189
678504
DOE Contract Number:  
AC04-94AL85000
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Luketa, Anay, Blanchat, Thomas K., Lord, David, Hogge, Joseph, Cruz-Cabrera, Alvaro Augusto, and Allen, Ray. Pool Fire and Fireball Experiments in Support of the US DOE/DOT/TC Crude Oil Characterization Research Study.. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.2172/1557808.
Luketa, Anay, Blanchat, Thomas K., Lord, David, Hogge, Joseph, Cruz-Cabrera, Alvaro Augusto, & Allen, Ray. Pool Fire and Fireball Experiments in Support of the US DOE/DOT/TC Crude Oil Characterization Research Study.. United States. doi:10.2172/1557808.
Luketa, Anay, Blanchat, Thomas K., Lord, David, Hogge, Joseph, Cruz-Cabrera, Alvaro Augusto, and Allen, Ray. Fri . "Pool Fire and Fireball Experiments in Support of the US DOE/DOT/TC Crude Oil Characterization Research Study.". United States. doi:10.2172/1557808. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1557808.
@article{osti_1557808,
title = {Pool Fire and Fireball Experiments in Support of the US DOE/DOT/TC Crude Oil Characterization Research Study.},
author = {Luketa, Anay and Blanchat, Thomas K. and Lord, David and Hogge, Joseph and Cruz-Cabrera, Alvaro Augusto and Allen, Ray},
abstractNote = {This report describes an experimental study of physical, chemical, and combustion characteristics of selected North American crude oils, and how these associate with thermal hazard distances resulting from pool fires and fireballs. The emergence of large volumes of tight oils within the North American Transportation system over the last decade coupled with several high-profile train accidents involving crude oils, has raised questions about the role of oil properties in general, and tight oils in particular, in affecting the severity of hazard outcomes in related crude oil fires. The objective of the pool fire experiments is to measure parameters necessary for hazard evaluation, namely, burn rate, surface emissive power, flame height, and heat flux to an engulfed object. To carry out this objective, a series of 2-m diameter indoor and 5-m diameter outdoor experiments were performed. The objective of the fireball experiments is to measure parameters required for hazard evaluation which include fireball maximum diameter, height at maximum diameter, duration, and surface emissive power using 400-gallons of crude oil per test. The crude oil samples used for the experiments were obtained from several U.S. locations, including including “tight” oils from the Bakken region of North Dakota and Permian region of Texas, and a conventionally produced oil from the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve stockpile. These samples spanned a measurable range of vapor pressure (VPCRx(T)) and light ends content representative of U.S. domestic conventional and tight crudes. The results indicate that all the oils tested here have comparable thermal hazard distances and the measured properties are consistent with other alkane-based hydrocarbon liquids. The similarity of pool fire and fireball burn characteristics pertinent to thermal hazard outcomes of the three oils studied indicate that vapor pressure is not a statistically significant factor in affecting these outcomes. Thus, the results from this work do not support creating a distinction for crude oils based on vapor pressure with regards to these combustion events.},
doi = {10.2172/1557808},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {8}
}