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Title: Towards predicting removal rate and surface roughness during grinding of optical materials

Abstract

A series of controlled grinding experiments, utilizing loose or fixed abrasives of either alumina or diamond at various particle sizes, were performed on a wide range of optical workpiece materials [single crystals of Al 2O 3 (sapphire), SiC, Y 3Al 5O 12 (YAG), CaF 2, and LiB 3O 5 (LBO); a SiO 2-Al 2O 3-P 2O 5-Li 2O glass ceramic (Zerodur); and glasses of SiO 2:TiO 2 (ULE), SiO 2 (fused silica), and P 2O 5-Al 2O 3-K 2O-BaO (Phosphate)]. The material removal rate, surface roughness, and the morphology of surface fractures were measured. Separately, Vickers indentation was performed on the workpieces, and the depths of various crack types as a function of applied load was measured. Single pass grinding experiments showed distinct differences in the spatial pattern of surface fracturing between the loose alumina abrasive (isolated indent-type lateral cracking) and the loose or fixed diamond abrasive (scratch-type elongated lateral cracking). Each of the grinding methods had a removal rate and roughness that scaled with the lateral crack slope, sℓ (i.e. the rate of increase in lateral crack depth with the applied load) of the workpiece material. A grinding model (based on the volumetric removal of lateral cracks accounting formore » neighboring lateral crack removal efficiency and the fraction of abrasive particles leading to fracture initiation) and a roughness model (based on the depth of lateral cracks or the interface gap between the workpiece and lap) are shown to quantitatively describe the material removal rate and roughness as a function of workpiece material, abrasive size, applied pressure and relative velocity. This broad, multi-process variable grinding model can serve as a predictive tool for estimating grinding rates and surface roughness for various grinding processes on different workpiece materials« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1542715
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1503358
Report Number(s):
LLNL-JRNL-780620
Journal ID: ISSN 1559-128X; APOPAI; 972565
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-07NA27344
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Applied Optics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 58; Journal Issue: 10; Journal ID: ISSN 1559-128X
Publisher:
Optical Society of America
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Suratwala, Tayyab, Steele, Rusty, Wong, Lana, Miller, Phil, Feigenbaum, Eyal, Shen, Nan, Ray, Nathan, and Feit, Michael. Towards predicting removal rate and surface roughness during grinding of optical materials. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1364/AO.58.002490.
Suratwala, Tayyab, Steele, Rusty, Wong, Lana, Miller, Phil, Feigenbaum, Eyal, Shen, Nan, Ray, Nathan, & Feit, Michael. Towards predicting removal rate and surface roughness during grinding of optical materials. United States. doi:10.1364/AO.58.002490.
Suratwala, Tayyab, Steele, Rusty, Wong, Lana, Miller, Phil, Feigenbaum, Eyal, Shen, Nan, Ray, Nathan, and Feit, Michael. Wed . "Towards predicting removal rate and surface roughness during grinding of optical materials". United States. doi:10.1364/AO.58.002490. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1542715.
@article{osti_1542715,
title = {Towards predicting removal rate and surface roughness during grinding of optical materials},
author = {Suratwala, Tayyab and Steele, Rusty and Wong, Lana and Miller, Phil and Feigenbaum, Eyal and Shen, Nan and Ray, Nathan and Feit, Michael},
abstractNote = {A series of controlled grinding experiments, utilizing loose or fixed abrasives of either alumina or diamond at various particle sizes, were performed on a wide range of optical workpiece materials [single crystals of Al2O3 (sapphire), SiC, Y3Al5O12 (YAG), CaF2, and LiB3O5 (LBO); a SiO2-Al2O3-P2O5-Li2O glass ceramic (Zerodur); and glasses of SiO2:TiO2 (ULE), SiO2 (fused silica), and P2O5-Al2O3-K2O-BaO (Phosphate)]. The material removal rate, surface roughness, and the morphology of surface fractures were measured. Separately, Vickers indentation was performed on the workpieces, and the depths of various crack types as a function of applied load was measured. Single pass grinding experiments showed distinct differences in the spatial pattern of surface fracturing between the loose alumina abrasive (isolated indent-type lateral cracking) and the loose or fixed diamond abrasive (scratch-type elongated lateral cracking). Each of the grinding methods had a removal rate and roughness that scaled with the lateral crack slope, sℓ (i.e. the rate of increase in lateral crack depth with the applied load) of the workpiece material. A grinding model (based on the volumetric removal of lateral cracks accounting for neighboring lateral crack removal efficiency and the fraction of abrasive particles leading to fracture initiation) and a roughness model (based on the depth of lateral cracks or the interface gap between the workpiece and lap) are shown to quantitatively describe the material removal rate and roughness as a function of workpiece material, abrasive size, applied pressure and relative velocity. This broad, multi-process variable grinding model can serve as a predictive tool for estimating grinding rates and surface roughness for various grinding processes on different workpiece materials},
doi = {10.1364/AO.58.002490},
journal = {Applied Optics},
issn = {1559-128X},
number = 10,
volume = 58,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {3}
}

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Works referenced in this record:

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    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Lateral cracks during sliding indentation on various optical materials
    journal, September 2019

    • Suratwala, Tayyab; Steele, Rusty; Shen, Nan
    • Journal of the American Ceramic Society, Vol. 103, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1111/jace.16787