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Title: Planck 2013 results. XVII. Gravitational lensing by large-scale structure

Abstract

On the arcminute angular scales probed by Planck, the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies are gently perturbed by gravitational lensing. Here we present a detailed study of this effect, detecting lensing independently in the 100, 143, and 217 GHz frequency bands with an overall significance of greater than 25σ. We use thetemperature-gradient correlations induced by lensing to reconstruct a (noisy) map of the CMB lensing potential, which provides an integrated measure of the mass distribution back to the CMB last-scattering surface. Our lensing potential map is significantly correlated with other tracers of mass, a fact which we demonstrate using several representative tracers of large-scale structure. We estimate the power spectrum of the lensing potential, finding generally good agreement with expectations from the best-fitting ΛCDM model for the Planck temperature power spectrum, showing that this measurement at z = 1100 correctly predicts the properties of the lower-redshift, later-time structures which source the lensing potential. Furthermore, when combined with the temperature power spectrum, our measurement provides degeneracy-breaking power for parameter constraints; it improves CMB-alone constraints on curvature by a factor of two and also partly breaks the degeneracy between the amplitude of the primordial perturbation power spectrum and the optical depth tomore » reionization, allowing a measurement of the optical depth to reionization which is independent of large-scale polarization data. Discarding scale information, our measurement corresponds to a 4% constraint on the amplitude of the lensing potential power spectrum, or a 2% constraint on the root-mean-squared amplitude of matter fluctuations at z ~ 2.« less

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
Contributing Org.:
Planck Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1523973
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Astronomy and Astrophysics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 571; Journal ID: ISSN 0004-6361
Publisher:
EDP Sciences
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
gravitational lensing: weak; methods: data analysis; cosmic background radiation; large-scale structure of Universe

Citation Formats

Ade, P. A. R., Aghanim, N., Armitage-Caplan, C., Arnaud, M., Ashdown, M., Atrio-Barandela, F., Aumont, J., Baccigalupi, C., Banday, A. J., Barreiro, R. B., Bartlett, J. G., Basak, S., Battaner, E., Benabed, K., Benoît, A., Benoit-Lévy, A., Bernard, J. -P., Bersanelli, M., Bielewicz, P., Bobin, J., Bock, J. J., Bonaldi, A., Bonavera, L., Bond, J. R., Borrill, J., Bouchet, F. R., Bridges, M., Bucher, M., Burigana, C., Butler, R. C., Cardoso, J. -F., Catalano, A., Challinor, A., Chamballu, A., Chiang, H. C., Chiang, L. -Y, Christensen, P. R., Church, S., Clements, D. L., Colombi, S., Colombo, L. P. L., Couchot, F., Coulais, A., Crill, B. P., Curto, A., Cuttaia, F., Danese, L., Davies, R. D., Davis, R. J., de Bernardis, P., de Rosa, A., de Zotti, G., Déchelette, T., Delabrouille, J., Delouis, J. -M., Désert, F. -X., Dickinson, C., Diego, J. M., Dole, H., Donzelli, S., Doré, O., Douspis, M., Dunkley, J., Dupac, X., Efstathiou, G., Enßlin, T. A., Eriksen, H. K., Finelli, F., Forni, O., Frailis, M., Franceschi, E., Galeotta, S., Ganga, K., Giard, M., Giardino, G., Giraud-Héraud, Y., González-Nuevo, J., Górski, K. M., Gratton, S., Gregorio, A., Gruppuso, A., Gudmundsson, J. E., Hansen, F. K., Hanson, D., Harrison, D., Henrot-Versillé, S., Hernández-Monteagudo, C., Herranz, D., Hildebrandt, S. R., Hivon, E., Ho, S., Hobson, M., Holmes, W. A., Hornstrup, A., Hovest, W., Huffenberger, K. M., Jaffe, A. H., Jaffe, T. R., Jones, W. C., Juvela, M., Keihänen, E., Keskitalo, R., Kisner, T. S., Kneissl, R., Knoche, J., Knox, L., Kunz, M., Kurki-Suonio, H., Lagache, G., Lähteenmäki, A., Lamarre, J. -M., Lasenby, A., Laureijs, R. J., Lavabre, A., Lawrence, C. R., Leahy, J. P., Leonardi, R., León-Tavares, J., Lesgourgues, J., Lewis, A., Liguori, M., Lilje, P. B., Linden-Vørnle, M., López-Caniego, M., Lubin, P. M., Macías-Pérez, J. F., Maffei, B., Maino, D., Mandolesi, N., Mangilli, A., Maris, M., Marshall, D. J., Martin, P. G., Martínez-González, E., Masi, S., Massardi, M., Matarrese, S., Matthai, F., Mazzotta, P., Melchiorri, A., Mendes, L., Mennella, A., Migliaccio, M., Mitra, S., Miville-Deschênes, M. -A., Moneti, A., Montier, L., Morgante, G., Mortlock, D., Moss, A., Munshi, D., Murphy, J. A., Naselsky, P., Nati, F., Natoli, P., Netterfield, C. B., Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U., Noviello, F., Novikov, D., Novikov, I., Osborne, S., Oxborrow, C. A., Paci, F., Pagano, L., Pajot, F., Paoletti, D., Partridge, B., Pasian, F., Patanchon, G., Perdereau, O., Perotto, L., Perrotta, F., Piacentini, F., Piat, M., Pierpaoli, E., Pietrobon, D., Plaszczynski, S., Pointecouteau, E., Polenta, G., Ponthieu, N., Popa, L., Poutanen, T., Pratt, G. W., Prézeau, G., Prunet, S., Puget, J. -L., Pullen, A. R., Rachen, J. P., Rebolo, R., Reinecke, M., Remazeilles, M., Renault, C., Ricciardi, S., Riller, T., Ristorcelli, I., Rocha, G., Rosset, C., Roudier, G., Rowan-Robinson, M., Rubiño-Martín, J. A., Rusholme, B., Sandri, M., Santos, D., Savini, G., Scott, D., Seiffert, M. D., Shellard, E. P. S., Smith, K., Spencer, L. D., Starck, J. -L., Stolyarov, V., Stompor, R., Sudiwala, R., Sunyaev, R., Sureau, F., Sutton, D., Suur-Uski, A. -S., Sygnet, J. -F., Tauber, J. A., Tavagnacco, D., Terenzi, L., Toffolatti, L., Tomasi, M., Tristram, M., Tucci, M., Tuovinen, J., Umana, G., Valenziano, L., Valiviita, J., Van Tent, B., Vielva, P., Villa, F., Vittorio, N., Wade, L. A., Wandelt, B. D., White, M., White, S. D. M., Yvon, D., Zacchei, A., and Zonca, A. Planck 2013 results. XVII. Gravitational lensing by large-scale structure. United States: N. p., 2014. Web. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201321543.
Ade, P. A. R., Aghanim, N., Armitage-Caplan, C., Arnaud, M., Ashdown, M., Atrio-Barandela, F., Aumont, J., Baccigalupi, C., Banday, A. J., Barreiro, R. B., Bartlett, J. G., Basak, S., Battaner, E., Benabed, K., Benoît, A., Benoit-Lévy, A., Bernard, J. -P., Bersanelli, M., Bielewicz, P., Bobin, J., Bock, J. J., Bonaldi, A., Bonavera, L., Bond, J. R., Borrill, J., Bouchet, F. R., Bridges, M., Bucher, M., Burigana, C., Butler, R. C., Cardoso, J. -F., Catalano, A., Challinor, A., Chamballu, A., Chiang, H. C., Chiang, L. -Y, Christensen, P. R., Church, S., Clements, D. L., Colombi, S., Colombo, L. P. L., Couchot, F., Coulais, A., Crill, B. P., Curto, A., Cuttaia, F., Danese, L., Davies, R. D., Davis, R. J., de Bernardis, P., de Rosa, A., de Zotti, G., Déchelette, T., Delabrouille, J., Delouis, J. -M., Désert, F. -X., Dickinson, C., Diego, J. M., Dole, H., Donzelli, S., Doré, O., Douspis, M., Dunkley, J., Dupac, X., Efstathiou, G., Enßlin, T. A., Eriksen, H. K., Finelli, F., Forni, O., Frailis, M., Franceschi, E., Galeotta, S., Ganga, K., Giard, M., Giardino, G., Giraud-Héraud, Y., González-Nuevo, J., Górski, K. M., Gratton, S., Gregorio, A., Gruppuso, A., Gudmundsson, J. E., Hansen, F. K., Hanson, D., Harrison, D., Henrot-Versillé, S., Hernández-Monteagudo, C., Herranz, D., Hildebrandt, S. R., Hivon, E., Ho, S., Hobson, M., Holmes, W. A., Hornstrup, A., Hovest, W., Huffenberger, K. M., Jaffe, A. H., Jaffe, T. R., Jones, W. C., Juvela, M., Keihänen, E., Keskitalo, R., Kisner, T. S., Kneissl, R., Knoche, J., Knox, L., Kunz, M., Kurki-Suonio, H., Lagache, G., Lähteenmäki, A., Lamarre, J. -M., Lasenby, A., Laureijs, R. J., Lavabre, A., Lawrence, C. R., Leahy, J. P., Leonardi, R., León-Tavares, J., Lesgourgues, J., Lewis, A., Liguori, M., Lilje, P. B., Linden-Vørnle, M., López-Caniego, M., Lubin, P. M., Macías-Pérez, J. F., Maffei, B., Maino, D., Mandolesi, N., Mangilli, A., Maris, M., Marshall, D. J., Martin, P. G., Martínez-González, E., Masi, S., Massardi, M., Matarrese, S., Matthai, F., Mazzotta, P., Melchiorri, A., Mendes, L., Mennella, A., Migliaccio, M., Mitra, S., Miville-Deschênes, M. -A., Moneti, A., Montier, L., Morgante, G., Mortlock, D., Moss, A., Munshi, D., Murphy, J. A., Naselsky, P., Nati, F., Natoli, P., Netterfield, C. B., Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U., Noviello, F., Novikov, D., Novikov, I., Osborne, S., Oxborrow, C. A., Paci, F., Pagano, L., Pajot, F., Paoletti, D., Partridge, B., Pasian, F., Patanchon, G., Perdereau, O., Perotto, L., Perrotta, F., Piacentini, F., Piat, M., Pierpaoli, E., Pietrobon, D., Plaszczynski, S., Pointecouteau, E., Polenta, G., Ponthieu, N., Popa, L., Poutanen, T., Pratt, G. W., Prézeau, G., Prunet, S., Puget, J. -L., Pullen, A. R., Rachen, J. P., Rebolo, R., Reinecke, M., Remazeilles, M., Renault, C., Ricciardi, S., Riller, T., Ristorcelli, I., Rocha, G., Rosset, C., Roudier, G., Rowan-Robinson, M., Rubiño-Martín, J. A., Rusholme, B., Sandri, M., Santos, D., Savini, G., Scott, D., Seiffert, M. D., Shellard, E. P. S., Smith, K., Spencer, L. D., Starck, J. -L., Stolyarov, V., Stompor, R., Sudiwala, R., Sunyaev, R., Sureau, F., Sutton, D., Suur-Uski, A. -S., Sygnet, J. -F., Tauber, J. A., Tavagnacco, D., Terenzi, L., Toffolatti, L., Tomasi, M., Tristram, M., Tucci, M., Tuovinen, J., Umana, G., Valenziano, L., Valiviita, J., Van Tent, B., Vielva, P., Villa, F., Vittorio, N., Wade, L. A., Wandelt, B. D., White, M., White, S. D. M., Yvon, D., Zacchei, A., & Zonca, A. Planck 2013 results. XVII. Gravitational lensing by large-scale structure. United States. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201321543.
Ade, P. A. R., Aghanim, N., Armitage-Caplan, C., Arnaud, M., Ashdown, M., Atrio-Barandela, F., Aumont, J., Baccigalupi, C., Banday, A. J., Barreiro, R. B., Bartlett, J. G., Basak, S., Battaner, E., Benabed, K., Benoît, A., Benoit-Lévy, A., Bernard, J. -P., Bersanelli, M., Bielewicz, P., Bobin, J., Bock, J. J., Bonaldi, A., Bonavera, L., Bond, J. R., Borrill, J., Bouchet, F. R., Bridges, M., Bucher, M., Burigana, C., Butler, R. C., Cardoso, J. -F., Catalano, A., Challinor, A., Chamballu, A., Chiang, H. C., Chiang, L. -Y, Christensen, P. R., Church, S., Clements, D. L., Colombi, S., Colombo, L. P. L., Couchot, F., Coulais, A., Crill, B. P., Curto, A., Cuttaia, F., Danese, L., Davies, R. D., Davis, R. J., de Bernardis, P., de Rosa, A., de Zotti, G., Déchelette, T., Delabrouille, J., Delouis, J. -M., Désert, F. -X., Dickinson, C., Diego, J. M., Dole, H., Donzelli, S., Doré, O., Douspis, M., Dunkley, J., Dupac, X., Efstathiou, G., Enßlin, T. A., Eriksen, H. K., Finelli, F., Forni, O., Frailis, M., Franceschi, E., Galeotta, S., Ganga, K., Giard, M., Giardino, G., Giraud-Héraud, Y., González-Nuevo, J., Górski, K. M., Gratton, S., Gregorio, A., Gruppuso, A., Gudmundsson, J. E., Hansen, F. K., Hanson, D., Harrison, D., Henrot-Versillé, S., Hernández-Monteagudo, C., Herranz, D., Hildebrandt, S. R., Hivon, E., Ho, S., Hobson, M., Holmes, W. A., Hornstrup, A., Hovest, W., Huffenberger, K. M., Jaffe, A. H., Jaffe, T. R., Jones, W. C., Juvela, M., Keihänen, E., Keskitalo, R., Kisner, T. S., Kneissl, R., Knoche, J., Knox, L., Kunz, M., Kurki-Suonio, H., Lagache, G., Lähteenmäki, A., Lamarre, J. -M., Lasenby, A., Laureijs, R. J., Lavabre, A., Lawrence, C. R., Leahy, J. P., Leonardi, R., León-Tavares, J., Lesgourgues, J., Lewis, A., Liguori, M., Lilje, P. B., Linden-Vørnle, M., López-Caniego, M., Lubin, P. M., Macías-Pérez, J. F., Maffei, B., Maino, D., Mandolesi, N., Mangilli, A., Maris, M., Marshall, D. J., Martin, P. G., Martínez-González, E., Masi, S., Massardi, M., Matarrese, S., Matthai, F., Mazzotta, P., Melchiorri, A., Mendes, L., Mennella, A., Migliaccio, M., Mitra, S., Miville-Deschênes, M. -A., Moneti, A., Montier, L., Morgante, G., Mortlock, D., Moss, A., Munshi, D., Murphy, J. A., Naselsky, P., Nati, F., Natoli, P., Netterfield, C. B., Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U., Noviello, F., Novikov, D., Novikov, I., Osborne, S., Oxborrow, C. A., Paci, F., Pagano, L., Pajot, F., Paoletti, D., Partridge, B., Pasian, F., Patanchon, G., Perdereau, O., Perotto, L., Perrotta, F., Piacentini, F., Piat, M., Pierpaoli, E., Pietrobon, D., Plaszczynski, S., Pointecouteau, E., Polenta, G., Ponthieu, N., Popa, L., Poutanen, T., Pratt, G. W., Prézeau, G., Prunet, S., Puget, J. -L., Pullen, A. R., Rachen, J. P., Rebolo, R., Reinecke, M., Remazeilles, M., Renault, C., Ricciardi, S., Riller, T., Ristorcelli, I., Rocha, G., Rosset, C., Roudier, G., Rowan-Robinson, M., Rubiño-Martín, J. A., Rusholme, B., Sandri, M., Santos, D., Savini, G., Scott, D., Seiffert, M. D., Shellard, E. P. S., Smith, K., Spencer, L. D., Starck, J. -L., Stolyarov, V., Stompor, R., Sudiwala, R., Sunyaev, R., Sureau, F., Sutton, D., Suur-Uski, A. -S., Sygnet, J. -F., Tauber, J. A., Tavagnacco, D., Terenzi, L., Toffolatti, L., Tomasi, M., Tristram, M., Tucci, M., Tuovinen, J., Umana, G., Valenziano, L., Valiviita, J., Van Tent, B., Vielva, P., Villa, F., Vittorio, N., Wade, L. A., Wandelt, B. D., White, M., White, S. D. M., Yvon, D., Zacchei, A., and Zonca, A. Wed . "Planck 2013 results. XVII. Gravitational lensing by large-scale structure". United States. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201321543. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1523973.
@article{osti_1523973,
title = {Planck 2013 results. XVII. Gravitational lensing by large-scale structure},
author = {Ade, P. A. R. and Aghanim, N. and Armitage-Caplan, C. and Arnaud, M. and Ashdown, M. and Atrio-Barandela, F. and Aumont, J. and Baccigalupi, C. and Banday, A. J. and Barreiro, R. B. and Bartlett, J. G. and Basak, S. and Battaner, E. and Benabed, K. and Benoît, A. and Benoit-Lévy, A. and Bernard, J. -P. and Bersanelli, M. and Bielewicz, P. and Bobin, J. and Bock, J. J. and Bonaldi, A. and Bonavera, L. and Bond, J. R. and Borrill, J. and Bouchet, F. R. and Bridges, M. and Bucher, M. and Burigana, C. and Butler, R. C. and Cardoso, J. -F. and Catalano, A. and Challinor, A. and Chamballu, A. and Chiang, H. C. and Chiang, L. -Y and Christensen, P. R. and Church, S. and Clements, D. L. and Colombi, S. and Colombo, L. P. L. and Couchot, F. and Coulais, A. and Crill, B. P. and Curto, A. and Cuttaia, F. and Danese, L. and Davies, R. D. and Davis, R. J. and de Bernardis, P. and de Rosa, A. and de Zotti, G. and Déchelette, T. and Delabrouille, J. and Delouis, J. -M. and Désert, F. -X. and Dickinson, C. and Diego, J. M. and Dole, H. and Donzelli, S. and Doré, O. and Douspis, M. and Dunkley, J. and Dupac, X. and Efstathiou, G. and Enßlin, T. A. and Eriksen, H. K. and Finelli, F. and Forni, O. and Frailis, M. and Franceschi, E. and Galeotta, S. and Ganga, K. and Giard, M. and Giardino, G. and Giraud-Héraud, Y. and González-Nuevo, J. and Górski, K. M. and Gratton, S. and Gregorio, A. and Gruppuso, A. and Gudmundsson, J. E. and Hansen, F. K. and Hanson, D. and Harrison, D. and Henrot-Versillé, S. and Hernández-Monteagudo, C. and Herranz, D. and Hildebrandt, S. R. and Hivon, E. and Ho, S. and Hobson, M. and Holmes, W. A. and Hornstrup, A. and Hovest, W. and Huffenberger, K. M. and Jaffe, A. H. and Jaffe, T. R. and Jones, W. C. and Juvela, M. and Keihänen, E. and Keskitalo, R. and Kisner, T. S. and Kneissl, R. and Knoche, J. and Knox, L. and Kunz, M. and Kurki-Suonio, H. and Lagache, G. and Lähteenmäki, A. and Lamarre, J. -M. and Lasenby, A. and Laureijs, R. J. and Lavabre, A. and Lawrence, C. R. and Leahy, J. P. and Leonardi, R. and León-Tavares, J. and Lesgourgues, J. and Lewis, A. and Liguori, M. and Lilje, P. B. and Linden-Vørnle, M. and López-Caniego, M. and Lubin, P. M. and Macías-Pérez, J. F. and Maffei, B. and Maino, D. and Mandolesi, N. and Mangilli, A. and Maris, M. and Marshall, D. J. and Martin, P. G. and Martínez-González, E. and Masi, S. and Massardi, M. and Matarrese, S. and Matthai, F. and Mazzotta, P. and Melchiorri, A. and Mendes, L. and Mennella, A. and Migliaccio, M. and Mitra, S. and Miville-Deschênes, M. -A. and Moneti, A. and Montier, L. and Morgante, G. and Mortlock, D. and Moss, A. and Munshi, D. and Murphy, J. A. and Naselsky, P. and Nati, F. and Natoli, P. and Netterfield, C. B. and Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U. and Noviello, F. and Novikov, D. and Novikov, I. and Osborne, S. and Oxborrow, C. A. and Paci, F. and Pagano, L. and Pajot, F. and Paoletti, D. and Partridge, B. and Pasian, F. and Patanchon, G. and Perdereau, O. and Perotto, L. and Perrotta, F. and Piacentini, F. and Piat, M. and Pierpaoli, E. and Pietrobon, D. and Plaszczynski, S. and Pointecouteau, E. and Polenta, G. and Ponthieu, N. and Popa, L. and Poutanen, T. and Pratt, G. W. and Prézeau, G. and Prunet, S. and Puget, J. -L. and Pullen, A. R. and Rachen, J. P. and Rebolo, R. and Reinecke, M. and Remazeilles, M. and Renault, C. and Ricciardi, S. and Riller, T. and Ristorcelli, I. and Rocha, G. and Rosset, C. and Roudier, G. and Rowan-Robinson, M. and Rubiño-Martín, J. A. and Rusholme, B. and Sandri, M. and Santos, D. and Savini, G. and Scott, D. and Seiffert, M. D. and Shellard, E. P. S. and Smith, K. and Spencer, L. D. and Starck, J. -L. and Stolyarov, V. and Stompor, R. and Sudiwala, R. and Sunyaev, R. and Sureau, F. and Sutton, D. and Suur-Uski, A. -S. and Sygnet, J. -F. and Tauber, J. A. and Tavagnacco, D. and Terenzi, L. and Toffolatti, L. and Tomasi, M. and Tristram, M. and Tucci, M. and Tuovinen, J. and Umana, G. and Valenziano, L. and Valiviita, J. and Van Tent, B. and Vielva, P. and Villa, F. and Vittorio, N. and Wade, L. A. and Wandelt, B. D. and White, M. and White, S. D. M. and Yvon, D. and Zacchei, A. and Zonca, A.},
abstractNote = {On the arcminute angular scales probed by Planck, the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies are gently perturbed by gravitational lensing. Here we present a detailed study of this effect, detecting lensing independently in the 100, 143, and 217 GHz frequency bands with an overall significance of greater than 25σ. We use thetemperature-gradient correlations induced by lensing to reconstruct a (noisy) map of the CMB lensing potential, which provides an integrated measure of the mass distribution back to the CMB last-scattering surface. Our lensing potential map is significantly correlated with other tracers of mass, a fact which we demonstrate using several representative tracers of large-scale structure. We estimate the power spectrum of the lensing potential, finding generally good agreement with expectations from the best-fitting ΛCDM model for the Planck temperature power spectrum, showing that this measurement at z = 1100 correctly predicts the properties of the lower-redshift, later-time structures which source the lensing potential. Furthermore, when combined with the temperature power spectrum, our measurement provides degeneracy-breaking power for parameter constraints; it improves CMB-alone constraints on curvature by a factor of two and also partly breaks the degeneracy between the amplitude of the primordial perturbation power spectrum and the optical depth to reionization, allowing a measurement of the optical depth to reionization which is independent of large-scale polarization data. Discarding scale information, our measurement corresponds to a 4% constraint on the amplitude of the lensing potential power spectrum, or a 2% constraint on the root-mean-squared amplitude of matter fluctuations at z ~ 2.},
doi = {10.1051/0004-6361/201321543},
journal = {Astronomy and Astrophysics},
issn = {0004-6361},
number = ,
volume = 571,
place = {United States},
year = {2014},
month = {10}
}

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