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Title: A Detailed Study of the Most Relaxed SPT-selected Galaxy Clusters: Properties of the Cool Core and Central Galaxy

Abstract

We present a multi-wavelength analysis of the four most relaxed clusters in the South Pole Telescope 2500 deg 2 survey, which lie at 0.55 < z < 0.75. This study, which utilizes new, deep data from the Chandra X-ray Observatory and Hubble Space Telescope, along with ground-based spectroscopy from Gemini and Magellan, improves significantly on previous studies in both depth and angular resolution, allowing us to directly compare to clusters at z ~ 0. We find that the temperature, density, and entropy profiles of the intracluster medium (ICM) are very similar among the four clusters, and share similar shapes to those of clusters at z ~ 0. Specifically, we find no evidence for deviations from self-similarity in the temperature profile over the radial range 10 kpc < r < 1 Mpc, implying that the processes responsible for preventing runaway cooling over the past gsim6 Gyr are, at least roughly, preserving self-similarity. We find typical metallicities of ~0.3 Z in the bulk of the ICM, rising to ~0.5 Z in the inner ~100 kpc, and reaching ~1 Z at r < 10 kpc. This central excess is similar in magnitude to what is observed in the most relaxedmore » clusters at z ~ 0, suggesting that both the global metallicity and the central excess that we see in cool core clusters at z ~ 0 were in place very early in the cluster's lifetime, and specifically that the central excess is not due to late-time enrichment by the central galaxy. Consistent with observations at z ~ 0, we measure a diversity of stellar populations in the central brightest cluster galaxies of these four clusters, with star formation rates spanning a factor of ~500, despite the similarities in cooling time, cooling rate, and central entropy. These data suggest that, while the details vary dramatically from system to system, runaway cooling has been broadly regulated in relaxed clusters over the past 6 Gyr.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [3];  [2]; ORCiD logo [1];  [4]; ORCiD logo [5];  [6];  [7];  [8]; ORCiD logo [6]; ORCiD logo [9];  [10]; ORCiD logo [11];  [12]; ORCiD logo [10];  [13]
  1. Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Kavli Inst. for Astrophysics and Space Research
  2. Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Kavli Inst. for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Dept. of Physics; SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  3. Univ. of Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dépt. de Physique
  4. Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Kavli Inst. for Cosmological Physics, Dept. of Astronomy and Astrophysics
  5. Univ. of Missouri, Kansas City, MO (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
  6. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States)
  7. Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Kavli Inst. for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Dept. of Physics
  8. Academia Sinica, Taipei (Taiwan). Inst. of Astronomy and Astrophysics; Ludwig-Maximilians Univ., Munich (Germany); Excellence Cluster Universe, Garching (Germany)
  9. Huntingdon Inst. for X-ray Astronomy, LLC, Huntingdon, PA (United States)
  10. Univ. of Melbourne (Australia). School of Physics
  11. Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Astronomy and Astrophysics
  12. Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Munich (Germany); Excellence Cluster Universe, Garching (Germany); Max Planck Inst. for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching (Germany)
  13. Argelander-Inst. für Astronomie, Bonn (Germany)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation (GBMF); National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA); Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC); Australian Research Council (ARC); USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25)
Contributing Org.:
SPT
OSTI Identifier:
1493322
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1487409
Report Number(s):
arXiv:1809.09104; FERMILAB-PUB-18-555-AE
Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515; AC02-07CH11359; GBMF 947; NAS-08060
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 870; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; galaxies: clusters: general; galaxies: clusters: intracluster medium; galaxies: elliptical and lenticular, cD; X-rays: galaxies: clusters

Citation Formats

McDonald, M., Allen, S. W., Hlavacek-Larrondo, J., Mantz, A. B., Bayliss, M., Benson, B. A., Brodwin, M., Bulbul, E., Canning, R. E. A., Chiu, I., Forman, W. R., Garmire, G. P., Gupta, N., Khullar, G., Mohr, J. J., Reichardt, C. L., and Schrabback, T. A Detailed Study of the Most Relaxed SPT-selected Galaxy Clusters: Properties of the Cool Core and Central Galaxy. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aaf394.
McDonald, M., Allen, S. W., Hlavacek-Larrondo, J., Mantz, A. B., Bayliss, M., Benson, B. A., Brodwin, M., Bulbul, E., Canning, R. E. A., Chiu, I., Forman, W. R., Garmire, G. P., Gupta, N., Khullar, G., Mohr, J. J., Reichardt, C. L., & Schrabback, T. A Detailed Study of the Most Relaxed SPT-selected Galaxy Clusters: Properties of the Cool Core and Central Galaxy. United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aaf394.
McDonald, M., Allen, S. W., Hlavacek-Larrondo, J., Mantz, A. B., Bayliss, M., Benson, B. A., Brodwin, M., Bulbul, E., Canning, R. E. A., Chiu, I., Forman, W. R., Garmire, G. P., Gupta, N., Khullar, G., Mohr, J. J., Reichardt, C. L., and Schrabback, T. Thu . "A Detailed Study of the Most Relaxed SPT-selected Galaxy Clusters: Properties of the Cool Core and Central Galaxy". United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aaf394. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1493322.
@article{osti_1493322,
title = {A Detailed Study of the Most Relaxed SPT-selected Galaxy Clusters: Properties of the Cool Core and Central Galaxy},
author = {McDonald, M. and Allen, S. W. and Hlavacek-Larrondo, J. and Mantz, A. B. and Bayliss, M. and Benson, B. A. and Brodwin, M. and Bulbul, E. and Canning, R. E. A. and Chiu, I. and Forman, W. R. and Garmire, G. P. and Gupta, N. and Khullar, G. and Mohr, J. J. and Reichardt, C. L. and Schrabback, T.},
abstractNote = {We present a multi-wavelength analysis of the four most relaxed clusters in the South Pole Telescope 2500 deg2 survey, which lie at 0.55 < z < 0.75. This study, which utilizes new, deep data from the Chandra X-ray Observatory and Hubble Space Telescope, along with ground-based spectroscopy from Gemini and Magellan, improves significantly on previous studies in both depth and angular resolution, allowing us to directly compare to clusters at z ~ 0. We find that the temperature, density, and entropy profiles of the intracluster medium (ICM) are very similar among the four clusters, and share similar shapes to those of clusters at z ~ 0. Specifically, we find no evidence for deviations from self-similarity in the temperature profile over the radial range 10 kpc < r < 1 Mpc, implying that the processes responsible for preventing runaway cooling over the past gsim6 Gyr are, at least roughly, preserving self-similarity. We find typical metallicities of ~0.3 Z⊙ in the bulk of the ICM, rising to ~0.5 Z⊙ in the inner ~100 kpc, and reaching ~1 Z⊙ at r < 10 kpc. This central excess is similar in magnitude to what is observed in the most relaxed clusters at z ~ 0, suggesting that both the global metallicity and the central excess that we see in cool core clusters at z ~ 0 were in place very early in the cluster's lifetime, and specifically that the central excess is not due to late-time enrichment by the central galaxy. Consistent with observations at z ~ 0, we measure a diversity of stellar populations in the central brightest cluster galaxies of these four clusters, with star formation rates spanning a factor of ~500, despite the similarities in cooling time, cooling rate, and central entropy. These data suggest that, while the details vary dramatically from system to system, runaway cooling has been broadly regulated in relaxed clusters over the past 6 Gyr.},
doi = {10.3847/1538-4357/aaf394},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal (Online)},
issn = {1538-4357},
number = 2,
volume = 870,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {1}
}

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    journal, July 2019

    • Stern, Jonathan; Fielding, Drummond; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 488, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz1859