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Title: The Climate Response to Stratospheric Aerosol Geoengineering Can Be Tailored Using Multiple Injection Locations

Abstract

The climate response to geoengineering with stratospheric aerosols has the potential to be designed to achieve some chosen objectives. By injecting different amounts of SO2 at multiple different latitudes, the spatial pattern of aerosol optical depth (AOD) can be partially controlled. We use simulations from the fully-coupled whole-atmosphere chemistry-climate model CESM1(WACCM), to demonstrate that three spatial degrees of freedom of AOD can be achieved by appropriately combining injection at different locations: an approximately spatially-uniform AOD distribution, the relative difference in AOD between Northern and Southern hemispheres, and the relative AOD in high versus low latitudes. For forcing levels that yield 1–2°C cooling, the AOD and surface temperature response are sufficiently linear in this model so that many climate effects can be predicted from single-latitude injection simulations. Optimized injection at multiple locations is predicted to improve compensation of CO2-forced climate change, relative to a case using only equatorial aerosol injection. The additional degrees of freedom can be used, for example, to balance interhemispheric temperature differences and the equator to pole temperature difference in addition to the global mean temperature; this is projected in this model to reduce the mean-square error in temperature compensation by 30%.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [5]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [5]
  1. Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca NY USA; Department of Computing and Mathematical Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena CA USA
  2. Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA
  3. Atmospheric Chemistry, Observations, and Modeling Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder CO USA; Climate and Global Dynamics Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder CO USA
  4. Climate and Global Dynamics Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder CO USA
  5. Atmospheric Chemistry, Observations, and Modeling Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder CO USA
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1430440
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-124473
Journal ID: ISSN 2169-897X; 453040135
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres; Journal Volume: 122; Journal Issue: 23
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

MacMartin, Douglas G., Kravitz, Ben, Tilmes, Simone, Richter, Jadwiga H., Mills, Michael J., Lamarque, Jean-Francois, Tribbia, Joseph J., and Vitt, Francis. The Climate Response to Stratospheric Aerosol Geoengineering Can Be Tailored Using Multiple Injection Locations. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1002/2017JD026868.
MacMartin, Douglas G., Kravitz, Ben, Tilmes, Simone, Richter, Jadwiga H., Mills, Michael J., Lamarque, Jean-Francois, Tribbia, Joseph J., & Vitt, Francis. The Climate Response to Stratospheric Aerosol Geoengineering Can Be Tailored Using Multiple Injection Locations. United States. doi:10.1002/2017JD026868.
MacMartin, Douglas G., Kravitz, Ben, Tilmes, Simone, Richter, Jadwiga H., Mills, Michael J., Lamarque, Jean-Francois, Tribbia, Joseph J., and Vitt, Francis. Thu . "The Climate Response to Stratospheric Aerosol Geoengineering Can Be Tailored Using Multiple Injection Locations". United States. doi:10.1002/2017JD026868.
@article{osti_1430440,
title = {The Climate Response to Stratospheric Aerosol Geoengineering Can Be Tailored Using Multiple Injection Locations},
author = {MacMartin, Douglas G. and Kravitz, Ben and Tilmes, Simone and Richter, Jadwiga H. and Mills, Michael J. and Lamarque, Jean-Francois and Tribbia, Joseph J. and Vitt, Francis},
abstractNote = {The climate response to geoengineering with stratospheric aerosols has the potential to be designed to achieve some chosen objectives. By injecting different amounts of SO2 at multiple different latitudes, the spatial pattern of aerosol optical depth (AOD) can be partially controlled. We use simulations from the fully-coupled whole-atmosphere chemistry-climate model CESM1(WACCM), to demonstrate that three spatial degrees of freedom of AOD can be achieved by appropriately combining injection at different locations: an approximately spatially-uniform AOD distribution, the relative difference in AOD between Northern and Southern hemispheres, and the relative AOD in high versus low latitudes. For forcing levels that yield 1–2°C cooling, the AOD and surface temperature response are sufficiently linear in this model so that many climate effects can be predicted from single-latitude injection simulations. Optimized injection at multiple locations is predicted to improve compensation of CO2-forced climate change, relative to a case using only equatorial aerosol injection. The additional degrees of freedom can be used, for example, to balance interhemispheric temperature differences and the equator to pole temperature difference in addition to the global mean temperature; this is projected in this model to reduce the mean-square error in temperature compensation by 30%.},
doi = {10.1002/2017JD026868},
journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres},
number = 23,
volume = 122,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Dec 07 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Thu Dec 07 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}