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Title: Development of intermediate temperature sodium nickel chloride rechargeable batteries using conventional polymer sealing technologies

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE)
OSTI Identifier:
1416198
Grant/Contract Number:
57558; AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Power Sources
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 348; Journal Issue: C; Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2018-01-09 02:45:42; Journal ID: ISSN 0378-7753
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
Netherlands
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Chang, Hee Jung, Lu, Xiaochuan, Bonnett, Jeff F., Canfield, Nathan L., Son, Sori, Park, Yoon-Cheol, Jung, Keeyoung, Sprenkle, Vincent L., and Li, Guosheng. Development of intermediate temperature sodium nickel chloride rechargeable batteries using conventional polymer sealing technologies. Netherlands: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2017.02.059.
Chang, Hee Jung, Lu, Xiaochuan, Bonnett, Jeff F., Canfield, Nathan L., Son, Sori, Park, Yoon-Cheol, Jung, Keeyoung, Sprenkle, Vincent L., & Li, Guosheng. Development of intermediate temperature sodium nickel chloride rechargeable batteries using conventional polymer sealing technologies. Netherlands. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2017.02.059.
Chang, Hee Jung, Lu, Xiaochuan, Bonnett, Jeff F., Canfield, Nathan L., Son, Sori, Park, Yoon-Cheol, Jung, Keeyoung, Sprenkle, Vincent L., and Li, Guosheng. Sat . "Development of intermediate temperature sodium nickel chloride rechargeable batteries using conventional polymer sealing technologies". Netherlands. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2017.02.059.
@article{osti_1416198,
title = {Development of intermediate temperature sodium nickel chloride rechargeable batteries using conventional polymer sealing technologies},
author = {Chang, Hee Jung and Lu, Xiaochuan and Bonnett, Jeff F. and Canfield, Nathan L. and Son, Sori and Park, Yoon-Cheol and Jung, Keeyoung and Sprenkle, Vincent L. and Li, Guosheng},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1016/j.jpowsour.2017.02.059},
journal = {Journal of Power Sources},
number = C,
volume = 348,
place = {Netherlands},
year = {Sat Apr 01 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Sat Apr 01 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2017.02.059

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 1work
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

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  • The sodium–nickel chloride (ZEBRA) battery is operated at relatively high temperature (250–350 °C) to achieve adequate electrochemical performance. Reducing the operating temperature in the range of 150200 °C can not only lead to enhanced cycle life by suppressing temperature-related degradations, but also allow the use of lower cost materials for construction. To achieve adequate electrochemical performance at lower operating temperatures, reduction in ohmic losses is required, including the reduced ohmic resistance of β"-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) and the incorporation of low melting point secondary electrolytes. In present work, planar-type Na/NiCl 2 cells with a thin BASE (600 μm) and lowmore » melting point secondary electrolyte were evaluated at reduced temperatures. Molten salts used as secondary electrolytes were fabricated by the partial replacement of NaCl in the standard secondary electrolyte (NaAlCl 4) with other lower melting point alkali metal salts such as NaBr, LiCl, and LiBr. Electrochemical characterization of these ternary molten salts demonstrated improved ionic conductivity and sufficient electrochemical window at reduced temperatures. Furthermore, Na/NiCl 2 cells with 50 mol% NaBr-containing secondary electrolyte exhibited reduced polarizations at 175 °C compared to the cell with the standard NaAlCl 4 catholyte. Finally, the cells also exhibited stable cycling performance even at 150 °C.« less
  • Here we demonstrate for the first time that planar Na-NiCl 2 batteries can be operated at an intermediate temperature of 190°C with ultra-high energy density. A specific energy density of 350 Wh/kg, which is 3 times higher than that of conventional tubular Na-NiCl 2 batteries operated at 280°C, was obtained for planar Na-NiCl 2 batteries operated at 190°C over a long-term cell test (1000 cycles). The high energy density and superior cycle stability are attributed to the slower particle growth of the cathode materials (NaCl and Ni) at 190°C. The results reported in this work demonstrate that planar Na-NiCl 2more » batteries operated at an intermediate temperature could greatly benefit this traditional energy storage technology by improving battery energy density, cycle life and reducing material costs.« less
  • Sodium–nickel chloride (ZEBRA) batteries are typically operated at relatively high temperatures ( 3 300 °C) to achieve adequate electrochemical performance. In the present study, the effects of operating temperature on the electrochemical performance of planar-type Na/NiCl 2 batteries were investigated to evaluate the feasibility of battery operation at low temperatures (£200 °C). The planar-type cell was able to be cycled at C/3 rate at as low as 175 °C despite higher cell polarization. Overall, low operating temperature resulted in a considerable improvement in the stability of cell performance. Cell degradation was negligible at 175 °C, while 55% increase in end-of-chargemore » polarization was observed at 280 °C after 60 cycles. SEM analysis indicated that the degradation at higher temperatures was related to the particle growth of both nickel and sodium chloride. The cells tested at lower temperatures (£200 °C), however, exhibited a sharp drop in voltage at the end of discharge due to the diffusion limitation, possibly caused by the limited ionic conductivity of catholyte or the poor wettability of sodium on the β"-Al 2O 3 solid electrolyte (BASE). FInally,, improvements in the ionic conductivity of catholyte and sodium wetting as well as reduction in the ohmic resistance of BASE are required to enhance the battery performance at low temperatures.« less
  • Research on sodium batteries has made a comeback because of concern regarding the limited resources and cost of lithium for Li-ion batteries. From the standpoint of electrochemistry and economics, Mn- or Fe-based layered transition metal oxides should be the most suitable cathode candidates for affordable sodium batteries. Herein, this paper reports a novel cathode material, layered Na 1+x(Fe y/2Ni y/2Mn 1–y) 1–xO 2 (x = 0.1–0.5), synthesized through a facile coprecipitation process combined with subsequent calcination. For such cathode material calcined at 800 °C for 20 h, the Na/Na 1+x(Fe y/2Ni y/2Mn 1–y) 1–xO 2 (x = 0.4) electrode exhibitedmore » a good capacity of 99.1 mAh g –1 (cycled at 1.5–4.0 V) and capacity retention over 87% after 50 cycles. Optimization of this material would make layered transition metal oxides a strong candidate for the Na-ion battery cathode.« less
  • An electrochemical cell has been designed for powder X-ray diffraction studies of lithium ion batteries (LIB) and sodium ion batteries (SIB) in operando with high time resolution using a conventional powder X-ray diffractometer. The cell allows for studies of both anode and cathode electrode materials in reflection mode. The cell design closely mimics that of standard battery testing coin cells and allows obtaining powder X-ray diffraction patterns under representative electrochemical conditions. In addition, the cell uses graphite as the X-ray window instead of beryllium, and it is easy to operate and maintain. Test examples on lithium insertion/extraction in two spinel-typemore » LIB electrode materials (Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} anode and LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cathode) are presented as well as first results on sodium extraction from a layered SIB cathode material (Na{sub 0.84}Fe{sub 0.56}Mn{sub 0.44}O{sub 2})« less