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Title: Survey of Lignin-Structure Changes and Depolymerization during Ionic Liquid Pretreatment

Abstract

A detailed study of chemical changes in lignin structure during the ionic liquid (IL) pretreatment process is not only pivotal for understanding and overcoming biomass recalcitrance during IL pretreatment, but also is necessary for designing new routes for lignin valorization. Chemical changes in lignin were systematically studied as a function of pretreatment temperature, time and type of IL used. Kraft lignin was used as the lignin source and common pretreatment conditions were employed using three different ILs of varying chemical structure in terms of acidic or basic character. The chemical changes in the lignin structure due to IL pretreatment processes were monitored using 1H-13C HSQC NMR, 31P NMR, elemental analysis, GPC, FT-IR, and the depolymerized products were analyzed using GC-MS. Although pretreatment in acidic IL, triethylammonium hydrogensulfate ([TEA][HSO4]) results in maximum decrease in β-aryl ether bond, maximum dehydration and recondensation pathways were also evident, with the net process showing a minimum decrease in the molecular weight of regenerated lignin. However, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2C1Im][OAc]) pretreatment yields a smaller decrease in the β-aryl ether content along with minimum evidence of recondensation, resulting in the maximum decrease in the molecular weight. Cholinium lysinate ([Ch][Lys]) pretreatment shows an intermediate result, with moderate depolymerization, dehydrationmore » and recondensation observed. The depolymerization products after IL pretreatment are found to be a function of the pretreatment temperature and the specific chemical nature of the IL used. At higher pretreatment temperature, [Ch][Lys] pretreatment yields guaiacol, [TEA][HSO4] yields guaiacylacetone, and [C2C1Im][OAc] yields both guaiacol and guaiacylacetone as major products. These results clearly indicate that the changes in lignin structure as well as the depolymerized product profile depend on the pretreatment conditions and the nature of the ILs. The insight gained on lignin structure changes and possible depolymerized products during IL pretreatment process would help future lignin valorization efforts in a potential IL-based lignocellulosic biorefinery.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ;  [1];  [2];  [2]; ORCiD logo;  [3];  [1]
  1. Deconstruction Division, Joint BioEnergy Institute, 5885 Hollis Street, Emeryville, California 94608, United States; Biological and Engineering Sciences Center, Sandia National Laboratories, 7011 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94551, United States
  2. Deconstruction Division, Joint BioEnergy Institute, 5885 Hollis Street, Emeryville, California 94608, United States
  3. Deconstruction Division, Joint BioEnergy Institute, 5885 Hollis Street, Emeryville, California 94608, United States; Biological Systems and Engineering Division, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720, United States
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (US), Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23)
OSTI Identifier:
1411892
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-125980
Journal ID: ISSN 2168-0485; 48827; KP1704020
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering; Journal Volume: 5; Journal Issue: 11
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; lignin; ionic liquid; NMR; Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory

Citation Formats

Dutta, Tanmoy, Isern, Nancy G., Sun, Jian, Wang, Eileen, Hull, Sarah, Cort, John R., Simmons, Blake A., and Singh, Seema. Survey of Lignin-Structure Changes and Depolymerization during Ionic Liquid Pretreatment. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1021/acssuschemeng.7b02123.
Dutta, Tanmoy, Isern, Nancy G., Sun, Jian, Wang, Eileen, Hull, Sarah, Cort, John R., Simmons, Blake A., & Singh, Seema. Survey of Lignin-Structure Changes and Depolymerization during Ionic Liquid Pretreatment. United States. doi:10.1021/acssuschemeng.7b02123.
Dutta, Tanmoy, Isern, Nancy G., Sun, Jian, Wang, Eileen, Hull, Sarah, Cort, John R., Simmons, Blake A., and Singh, Seema. Tue . "Survey of Lignin-Structure Changes and Depolymerization during Ionic Liquid Pretreatment". United States. doi:10.1021/acssuschemeng.7b02123.
@article{osti_1411892,
title = {Survey of Lignin-Structure Changes and Depolymerization during Ionic Liquid Pretreatment},
author = {Dutta, Tanmoy and Isern, Nancy G. and Sun, Jian and Wang, Eileen and Hull, Sarah and Cort, John R. and Simmons, Blake A. and Singh, Seema},
abstractNote = {A detailed study of chemical changes in lignin structure during the ionic liquid (IL) pretreatment process is not only pivotal for understanding and overcoming biomass recalcitrance during IL pretreatment, but also is necessary for designing new routes for lignin valorization. Chemical changes in lignin were systematically studied as a function of pretreatment temperature, time and type of IL used. Kraft lignin was used as the lignin source and common pretreatment conditions were employed using three different ILs of varying chemical structure in terms of acidic or basic character. The chemical changes in the lignin structure due to IL pretreatment processes were monitored using 1H-13C HSQC NMR, 31P NMR, elemental analysis, GPC, FT-IR, and the depolymerized products were analyzed using GC-MS. Although pretreatment in acidic IL, triethylammonium hydrogensulfate ([TEA][HSO4]) results in maximum decrease in β-aryl ether bond, maximum dehydration and recondensation pathways were also evident, with the net process showing a minimum decrease in the molecular weight of regenerated lignin. However, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2C1Im][OAc]) pretreatment yields a smaller decrease in the β-aryl ether content along with minimum evidence of recondensation, resulting in the maximum decrease in the molecular weight. Cholinium lysinate ([Ch][Lys]) pretreatment shows an intermediate result, with moderate depolymerization, dehydration and recondensation observed. The depolymerization products after IL pretreatment are found to be a function of the pretreatment temperature and the specific chemical nature of the IL used. At higher pretreatment temperature, [Ch][Lys] pretreatment yields guaiacol, [TEA][HSO4] yields guaiacylacetone, and [C2C1Im][OAc] yields both guaiacol and guaiacylacetone as major products. These results clearly indicate that the changes in lignin structure as well as the depolymerized product profile depend on the pretreatment conditions and the nature of the ILs. The insight gained on lignin structure changes and possible depolymerized products during IL pretreatment process would help future lignin valorization efforts in a potential IL-based lignocellulosic biorefinery.},
doi = {10.1021/acssuschemeng.7b02123},
journal = {ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering},
number = 11,
volume = 5,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Sep 26 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Tue Sep 26 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}