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Title: Materials characterization and the evolution of materials

Abstract

Abstract

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1392449
DOE Contract Number:
AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: MRS Bulletin; Journal Volume: 40; Journal Issue: 12
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Cross, J. O., Opila, R. L., Boyd, I. W., and Kaufmann, E. N.. Materials characterization and the evolution of materials. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1557/mrs.2015.271.
Cross, J. O., Opila, R. L., Boyd, I. W., & Kaufmann, E. N.. Materials characterization and the evolution of materials. United States. doi:10.1557/mrs.2015.271.
Cross, J. O., Opila, R. L., Boyd, I. W., and Kaufmann, E. N.. 2015. "Materials characterization and the evolution of materials". United States. doi:10.1557/mrs.2015.271.
@article{osti_1392449,
title = {Materials characterization and the evolution of materials},
author = {Cross, J. O. and Opila, R. L. and Boyd, I. W. and Kaufmann, E. N.},
abstractNote = {Abstract},
doi = {10.1557/mrs.2015.271},
journal = {MRS Bulletin},
number = 12,
volume = 40,
place = {United States},
year = 2015,
month =
}
  • Exposure of metallic structural materials to irradiation environments results in significant microstructural evolution, property changes, and performance degradation, which limits the extended operation of current generation light water reactors and restricts the design of advanced fission and fusion reactors. Further, it is well recognized that these irradiation effects are a classic example of inherently multiscale phenomena and that the mix of radiation-induced features formed and the corresponding property degradation depend on a wide range of material and irradiation variables. This inherently multiscale evolution emphasizes the importance of closely integrating models with high-resolution experimental characterization of the evolving radiation-damaged microstructure. Lastly,more » this article provides a review of recent models of the defect microstructure evolution in irradiated body-centered cubic materials, which provide good agreement with experimental measurements, and presents some outstanding challenges, which will require coordinated high-resolution characterization and modeling to resolve.« less
  • Designing materials for performance in high-radiation fields can be accelerated through a carefully chosen combination of advanced multiscale modeling paired with appropriate experimental validation. Here, the studies reported in this work, the combined efforts of six universities working together as the Consortium on Cladding and Structural Materials, use that approach to focus on improving the scientific basis for the response of ferritic–martensitic steels to irradiation. A combination of modern modeling techniques with controlled experimentation has specifically focused on improving the understanding of radiation-induced segregation, precipitate formation and growth under radiation, the stability of oxide nanoclusters, and the development of dislocationmore » networks under radiation. Experimental studies use both model and commercial alloys, irradiated with both ion beams and neutrons. Lastly, transmission electron microscopy and atom probe are combined with both first-principles and rate theory approaches to advance the understanding of ferritic–martensitic steels.« less
  • This paper describes a characterization of the evolution of some cementing materials that are currently used (cements) or are potentially usable (thermosetting resins) after they have been cured and aged under high pressure and high temperature. Specially designed testing equipment to simulate downhole conditions is shown. Variations in material characteristics were studied with standard methods (compressive strength and water permeability measurements) and physical analysis methods [scanner tomography, electronic microprobe, and scanning electronic microscope (SEM)]. The results show how aging influences the relationships between local structure and composition of materials and macroscopic properties.
  • The mechanical properties and microstructures have been evaluated for a heavily cold rolled Cu-20 vol.% Nb composite. The strength of the rolled composite dramatically increases with increasing rolling deformation up to a true strain of 6.9, the maximum investigated. Longitudinal and transverse specimens both possessed equivalent mechanical properties. The unusually high tensile strengths observed in this material are dependent upon the microstructures which develop during cold rolling. Nb elongates during deformation, and forms ribbon-like filaments that are perfectly aligned parallel to the sheet surface, that is, in two directions longitudinal and transverse, while the Cu matrix undergoes a cycle ofmore » deformation-dynamic recovery-recrystallization which allows for the further reduction of the Nb. The dislocation density of the Cu matrix is found to be on the order of 10{sup 10}/cm{sup 2} throughout the rolling process. The strengthening in rolled and wire drawn Cu-Nb correlates with the amount of deformation in a similar manner even though during wire drawing the Nb filaments curl bout the wire axis and, therefore, are aligned only in the longitudinal direction. As a consequence of the Nb morphological difference in the sheet versus the wire composite, strengthening in the sheet does not show a Hall--Petch relationship, as the wire does, but a much weaker dependence on Nb filament spacing. Strengthening in the rolled composite is in accord with a modified rule of mixtures model but this model cannot account for the observed strengthening in wire drawn Cu-Nb.« less