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Title: The 2016 Mw5.1 Fairview, Oklahoma earthquakes: Evidence for long-range poroelastic triggering at >40 km from fluid disposal wells

Abstract

Wastewater disposal in the central U.S. is likely responsible for an unprecedented surge in earthquake activity. Much of this activity is thought to be driven by induced pore pressure changes and slip on pre-stressed faults, which requires a hydraulic connection between faults and injection wells. However, direct pressure effects and hydraulic connectivity are questionable for earthquakes located at large distances and depths from the injectors. Here, we examine triggering mechanisms of induced earthquakes, which occurred at more than 40 km from wastewater disposal wells in the greater Fairview region, northwest Oklahoma, employing numerical and semi-analytical poroelastic models. The region exhibited few earthquakes before 2013, when background seismicity started to accelerate rapidly, culminating in the Mw5.1 Fairview earthquake in February 2016. Injection rates in the ~2–2.5km deep Arbuckle formation started to increase rapidly in 2012, about two years before the start of seismicity-increase. Most of the injection activity was concentrated toward the northeast of the study region, generating a relatively cohesive zone of pressure perturbations between 0.1 and 1MPa. Much of the near-injection seismicity was likely triggered by pressure effects and fault-assisted pressure diffusion to seismogenic depth. Outside of the high-pressure zone, we observed two remarkably detached, linear seismicity clusters, whichmore » occurred at 20 to 50 km distance from the initial seismicity and 10 to 40 km from the nearest, high-rate injector. Semi-analytical models reveal that poroelastically-induced Coulomb-stress-changes surpass pore pressure changes at these distances, providing a plausible triggering mechanism in the far-field of injection wells. These results indicate that both pore-pressures and poroelastic stresses can play a significant role in triggering deep and distant earthquakes by fluid injection and should be considered for seismic hazard assessment beyond the targeted reservoir.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [3];  [3];  [1]
  1. Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)
  2. Stanford Univ., CA (United States)
  3. Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1360834
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1425949
Grant/Contract Number:
SC0015539
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Published Article
Journal Name:
Earth and Planetary Science Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 472; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0012-821X
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES; pressure diffusion; induced seismicity; wastewater disposal; poroelastic stresses; Arbuckle group

Citation Formats

Goebel, T. H. W., Weingarten, M., Chen, X., Haffener, J., and Brodsky, E. E.. The 2016 Mw5.1 Fairview, Oklahoma earthquakes: Evidence for long-range poroelastic triggering at >40 km from fluid disposal wells. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2017.05.011.
Goebel, T. H. W., Weingarten, M., Chen, X., Haffener, J., & Brodsky, E. E.. The 2016 Mw5.1 Fairview, Oklahoma earthquakes: Evidence for long-range poroelastic triggering at >40 km from fluid disposal wells. United States. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2017.05.011.
Goebel, T. H. W., Weingarten, M., Chen, X., Haffener, J., and Brodsky, E. E.. Tue . "The 2016 Mw5.1 Fairview, Oklahoma earthquakes: Evidence for long-range poroelastic triggering at >40 km from fluid disposal wells". United States. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2017.05.011.
@article{osti_1360834,
title = {The 2016 Mw5.1 Fairview, Oklahoma earthquakes: Evidence for long-range poroelastic triggering at >40 km from fluid disposal wells},
author = {Goebel, T. H. W. and Weingarten, M. and Chen, X. and Haffener, J. and Brodsky, E. E.},
abstractNote = {Wastewater disposal in the central U.S. is likely responsible for an unprecedented surge in earthquake activity. Much of this activity is thought to be driven by induced pore pressure changes and slip on pre-stressed faults, which requires a hydraulic connection between faults and injection wells. However, direct pressure effects and hydraulic connectivity are questionable for earthquakes located at large distances and depths from the injectors. Here, we examine triggering mechanisms of induced earthquakes, which occurred at more than 40 km from wastewater disposal wells in the greater Fairview region, northwest Oklahoma, employing numerical and semi-analytical poroelastic models. The region exhibited few earthquakes before 2013, when background seismicity started to accelerate rapidly, culminating in the Mw5.1 Fairview earthquake in February 2016. Injection rates in the ~2–2.5km deep Arbuckle formation started to increase rapidly in 2012, about two years before the start of seismicity-increase. Most of the injection activity was concentrated toward the northeast of the study region, generating a relatively cohesive zone of pressure perturbations between 0.1 and 1MPa. Much of the near-injection seismicity was likely triggered by pressure effects and fault-assisted pressure diffusion to seismogenic depth. Outside of the high-pressure zone, we observed two remarkably detached, linear seismicity clusters, which occurred at 20 to 50 km distance from the initial seismicity and 10 to 40 km from the nearest, high-rate injector. Semi-analytical models reveal that poroelastically-induced Coulomb-stress-changes surpass pore pressure changes at these distances, providing a plausible triggering mechanism in the far-field of injection wells. These results indicate that both pore-pressures and poroelastic stresses can play a significant role in triggering deep and distant earthquakes by fluid injection and should be considered for seismic hazard assessment beyond the targeted reservoir.},
doi = {10.1016/j.epsl.2017.05.011},
journal = {Earth and Planetary Science Letters},
number = C,
volume = 472,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue May 30 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Tue May 30 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1016/j.epsl.2017.05.011

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 7works
Citation information provided by
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  • Wastewater disposal in the central U.S. is likely responsible for an unprecedented surge in earthquake activity. Much of this activity is thought to be driven by induced pore pressure changes and slip on pre-stressed faults, which requires a hydraulic connection between faults and injection wells. However, direct pressure effects and hydraulic connectivity are questionable for earthquakes located at large distances and depths from the injectors. Here, we examine triggering mechanisms of induced earthquakes, which occurred at more than 40 km from wastewater disposal wells in the greater Fairview region, northwest Oklahoma, employing numerical and semi-analytical poroelastic models. The region exhibitedmore » few earthquakes before 2013, when background seismicity started to accelerate rapidly, culminating in the Mw5.1 Fairview earthquake in February 2016. Injection rates in the ~2–2.5km deep Arbuckle formation started to increase rapidly in 2012, about two years before the start of seismicity-increase. Most of the injection activity was concentrated toward the northeast of the study region, generating a relatively cohesive zone of pressure perturbations between 0.1 and 1MPa. Much of the near-injection seismicity was likely triggered by pressure effects and fault-assisted pressure diffusion to seismogenic depth. Outside of the high-pressure zone, we observed two remarkably detached, linear seismicity clusters, which occurred at 20 to 50 km distance from the initial seismicity and 10 to 40 km from the nearest, high-rate injector. Semi-analytical models reveal that poroelastically-induced Coulomb-stress-changes surpass pore pressure changes at these distances, providing a plausible triggering mechanism in the far-field of injection wells. These results indicate that both pore-pressures and poroelastic stresses can play a significant role in triggering deep and distant earthquakes by fluid injection and should be considered for seismic hazard assessment beyond the targeted reservoir.« less
  • Tidal triggering of earthquakes is hypothesized to provide quantitative information regarding the fault's stress state, poroelastic properties, and may be significant for our understanding of seismic hazard. To date, studies of regional or global earthquake catalogs have had only modest successes in identifying tidal triggering. We posit that the smallest events that may provide additional evidence of triggering go unidentified and thus we developed a technique to improve the identification of very small magnitude events. We identify events applying a method known as inter-station seismic coherence where we prioritize detection and discrimination over characterization. Here we show tidal triggering ofmore » earthquakes on the San Andreas Fault. We find the complex interaction of semi-diurnal and fortnightly tidal periods exposes both stress threshold and critical state behavior. Lastly, our findings reveal earthquake nucleation processes and pore pressure conditions – properties of faults that are difficult to measure, yet extremely important for characterizing earthquake physics and seismic hazards.« less
  • Cited by 3