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Title: Multi-wavelength observations of blazar AO 0235+164 in the 2008-2009 flaring state

Abstract

The blazar AO 0235+164 (z = 0.94) has been one of the most active objects observed by Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) since its launch in Summer 2008. In addition to the continuous coverage by Fermi, contemporaneous observations were carried out from the radio to γ-ray bands between 2008 September and 2009 February.Here, we summarize the rich multi-wavelength data collected during the campaign (including F-GAMMA, GASP-WEBT, Kanata, OVRO, RXTE, SMARTS, Swift, and other instruments), examine the cross-correlation between the light curves measured in the different energy bands, and interpret the resulting spectral energy distributions in the context of well-known blazar emission models. We also find that the γ-ray activity is well correlated with a series of near-IR/optical flares, accompanied by an increase in the optical polarization degree. On the other hand, the X-ray light curve shows a distinct 20 day high state of unusually soft spectrum, which does not match the extrapolation of the optical/UV synchrotron spectrum. We tentatively interpret this feature as the bulk Compton emission by cold electrons contained in the jet, which requires an accretion disk corona with an effective covering factor of 19% at a distance of 100 R g. Finally, we model the broadband spectramore » with a leptonic model with external radiation dominated by the infrared emission from the dusty torus.« less

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
Contributing Org.:
the Fermi-LAT Collaboration; the GASP-WEBT consortium; F-GAMMA; Iram-PdBI; Kanata; RXTE; SMARTS; Swift-XRT
OSTI Identifier:
1356726
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Astrophysical Journal
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 751; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 0004-637X
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; BL Lacertae objects: individual (AO 0235+164); galaxies: active; galaxies: jets; gamma rays: galaxies; radiation mechanisms: non-thermal

Citation Formats

Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Bellazzini, R., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonamente, E., Borgland, A. W., Bottacini, E., Bregeon, J., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Caraveo, P. A., Casandjian, J. M., Cavazzuti, E., Cecchi, C., Charles, E., Chekhtman, A., Chiang, J., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Cutini, S., D'Ammando, F., de Palma, F., Dermer, C. D., do Couto e Silva, E., Drell, P. S., Drlica-Wagner, A., Dubois, R., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Ferrara, E. C., Focke, W. B., Fortin, P., Fuhrmann, L., Fukazawa, Y., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Gehrels, N., Germani, S., Giglietto, N., Giommi, P., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Grenier, I. A., Guiriec, S., Hadasch, D., Hayashida, M., Hughes, R. E., Itoh, R., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, A. S., Katagiri, H., Kataoka, J., Knödlseder, J., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Larsson, S., Lee, S. -H., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lott, B., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Madejski, G. M., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., Mehault, J., Michelson, P. F., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Monte, C., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Naumann-Godo, M., Nishino, S., Norris, J. P., Nuss, E., Ohsugi, T., Okumura, A., Omodei, N., Orlando, E., Ozaki, M., Paneque, D., Panetta, J. H., Pelassa, V., Pesce-Rollins, M., Pierbattista, M., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Rastawicki, D., Razzano, M., Readhead, A., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Reyes, L. C., Richards, J. L., Sbarra, C., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Szostek, A., Takahashi, H., Tanaka, T., Thayer, J. G., Thayer, J. B., Thompson, D. J., Tinivella, M., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Troja, E., Usher, T. L., Vandenbroucke, J., Vasileiou, V., Vianello, G., Vitale, V., Waite, A. P., Winer, B. L., Wood, K. S., Yang, Z., Zimmer, S., Moderski, R., Nalewajko, K., Sikora, M., Villata, M., Raiteri, C. M., Aller, H. D., Aller, M. F., Arkharov, A. A., Benítez, E., Berdyugin, A., Blinov, D. A., Boettcher, M., Bravo Calle, O. J. A., Buemi, C. S., Carosati, D., Chen, W. P., Diltz, C., Di Paola, A., Dolci, M., Efimova, N. V., Forné, E., Gurwell, M. A., Heidt, J., Hiriart, D., Jordan, B., Kimeridze, G., Konstantinova, T. S., Kopatskaya, E. N., Koptelova, E., Kurtanidze, O. M., Lähteenmäki, A., Larionova, E. G., Larionova, L. V., Larionov, V. M., Leto, P., Lindfors, E., Lin, H. C., Morozova, D. A., Nikolashvili, M. G., Nilsson, K., Oksman, M., Roustazadeh, P., Sievers, A., Sigua, L. A., Sillanpää, A., Takahashi, T., Takalo, L. O., Tornikoski, M., Trigilio, C., Troitsky, I. S., Umana, G., Angelakis, E., Krichbaum, T. P., Nestoras, I., Riquelme, D., Krips, M., Trippe, S., Arai, A., Kawabata, K. S., Sakimoto, K., Sasada, M., Sato, S., Uemura, M., Yamanaka, M., Yoshida, M., Belloni, T., Tagliaferri, G., Bonning, E. W., Isler, J., Urry, C. M., Hoversten, E., Falcone, A., Pagani, C., and Stroh, M. Multi-wavelength observations of blazar AO 0235+164 in the 2008-2009 flaring state. United States: N. p., 2012. Web. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/751/2/159.
Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Bellazzini, R., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonamente, E., Borgland, A. W., Bottacini, E., Bregeon, J., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Caraveo, P. A., Casandjian, J. M., Cavazzuti, E., Cecchi, C., Charles, E., Chekhtman, A., Chiang, J., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Cutini, S., D'Ammando, F., de Palma, F., Dermer, C. D., do Couto e Silva, E., Drell, P. S., Drlica-Wagner, A., Dubois, R., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Ferrara, E. C., Focke, W. B., Fortin, P., Fuhrmann, L., Fukazawa, Y., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Gehrels, N., Germani, S., Giglietto, N., Giommi, P., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Grenier, I. A., Guiriec, S., Hadasch, D., Hayashida, M., Hughes, R. E., Itoh, R., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, A. S., Katagiri, H., Kataoka, J., Knödlseder, J., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Larsson, S., Lee, S. -H., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lott, B., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Madejski, G. M., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., Mehault, J., Michelson, P. F., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Monte, C., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Naumann-Godo, M., Nishino, S., Norris, J. P., Nuss, E., Ohsugi, T., Okumura, A., Omodei, N., Orlando, E., Ozaki, M., Paneque, D., Panetta, J. H., Pelassa, V., Pesce-Rollins, M., Pierbattista, M., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Rastawicki, D., Razzano, M., Readhead, A., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Reyes, L. C., Richards, J. L., Sbarra, C., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Szostek, A., Takahashi, H., Tanaka, T., Thayer, J. G., Thayer, J. B., Thompson, D. J., Tinivella, M., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Troja, E., Usher, T. L., Vandenbroucke, J., Vasileiou, V., Vianello, G., Vitale, V., Waite, A. P., Winer, B. L., Wood, K. S., Yang, Z., Zimmer, S., Moderski, R., Nalewajko, K., Sikora, M., Villata, M., Raiteri, C. M., Aller, H. D., Aller, M. F., Arkharov, A. A., Benítez, E., Berdyugin, A., Blinov, D. A., Boettcher, M., Bravo Calle, O. J. A., Buemi, C. S., Carosati, D., Chen, W. P., Diltz, C., Di Paola, A., Dolci, M., Efimova, N. V., Forné, E., Gurwell, M. A., Heidt, J., Hiriart, D., Jordan, B., Kimeridze, G., Konstantinova, T. S., Kopatskaya, E. N., Koptelova, E., Kurtanidze, O. M., Lähteenmäki, A., Larionova, E. G., Larionova, L. V., Larionov, V. M., Leto, P., Lindfors, E., Lin, H. C., Morozova, D. A., Nikolashvili, M. G., Nilsson, K., Oksman, M., Roustazadeh, P., Sievers, A., Sigua, L. A., Sillanpää, A., Takahashi, T., Takalo, L. O., Tornikoski, M., Trigilio, C., Troitsky, I. S., Umana, G., Angelakis, E., Krichbaum, T. P., Nestoras, I., Riquelme, D., Krips, M., Trippe, S., Arai, A., Kawabata, K. S., Sakimoto, K., Sasada, M., Sato, S., Uemura, M., Yamanaka, M., Yoshida, M., Belloni, T., Tagliaferri, G., Bonning, E. W., Isler, J., Urry, C. M., Hoversten, E., Falcone, A., Pagani, C., & Stroh, M. Multi-wavelength observations of blazar AO 0235+164 in the 2008-2009 flaring state. United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/751/2/159.
Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Bellazzini, R., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonamente, E., Borgland, A. W., Bottacini, E., Bregeon, J., Brigida, M., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Caraveo, P. A., Casandjian, J. M., Cavazzuti, E., Cecchi, C., Charles, E., Chekhtman, A., Chiang, J., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Cutini, S., D'Ammando, F., de Palma, F., Dermer, C. D., do Couto e Silva, E., Drell, P. S., Drlica-Wagner, A., Dubois, R., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Ferrara, E. C., Focke, W. B., Fortin, P., Fuhrmann, L., Fukazawa, Y., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Gehrels, N., Germani, S., Giglietto, N., Giommi, P., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Grenier, I. A., Guiriec, S., Hadasch, D., Hayashida, M., Hughes, R. E., Itoh, R., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, A. S., Katagiri, H., Kataoka, J., Knödlseder, J., Kuss, M., Lande, J., Larsson, S., Lee, S. -H., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lott, B., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Madejski, G. M., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., Mehault, J., Michelson, P. F., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Monte, C., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Naumann-Godo, M., Nishino, S., Norris, J. P., Nuss, E., Ohsugi, T., Okumura, A., Omodei, N., Orlando, E., Ozaki, M., Paneque, D., Panetta, J. H., Pelassa, V., Pesce-Rollins, M., Pierbattista, M., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Rastawicki, D., Razzano, M., Readhead, A., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Reyes, L. C., Richards, J. L., Sbarra, C., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Szostek, A., Takahashi, H., Tanaka, T., Thayer, J. G., Thayer, J. B., Thompson, D. J., Tinivella, M., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Troja, E., Usher, T. L., Vandenbroucke, J., Vasileiou, V., Vianello, G., Vitale, V., Waite, A. P., Winer, B. L., Wood, K. S., Yang, Z., Zimmer, S., Moderski, R., Nalewajko, K., Sikora, M., Villata, M., Raiteri, C. M., Aller, H. D., Aller, M. F., Arkharov, A. A., Benítez, E., Berdyugin, A., Blinov, D. A., Boettcher, M., Bravo Calle, O. J. A., Buemi, C. S., Carosati, D., Chen, W. P., Diltz, C., Di Paola, A., Dolci, M., Efimova, N. V., Forné, E., Gurwell, M. A., Heidt, J., Hiriart, D., Jordan, B., Kimeridze, G., Konstantinova, T. S., Kopatskaya, E. N., Koptelova, E., Kurtanidze, O. M., Lähteenmäki, A., Larionova, E. G., Larionova, L. V., Larionov, V. M., Leto, P., Lindfors, E., Lin, H. C., Morozova, D. A., Nikolashvili, M. G., Nilsson, K., Oksman, M., Roustazadeh, P., Sievers, A., Sigua, L. A., Sillanpää, A., Takahashi, T., Takalo, L. O., Tornikoski, M., Trigilio, C., Troitsky, I. S., Umana, G., Angelakis, E., Krichbaum, T. P., Nestoras, I., Riquelme, D., Krips, M., Trippe, S., Arai, A., Kawabata, K. S., Sakimoto, K., Sasada, M., Sato, S., Uemura, M., Yamanaka, M., Yoshida, M., Belloni, T., Tagliaferri, G., Bonning, E. W., Isler, J., Urry, C. M., Hoversten, E., Falcone, A., Pagani, C., and Stroh, M. Thu . "Multi-wavelength observations of blazar AO 0235+164 in the 2008-2009 flaring state". United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/751/2/159. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1356726.
@article{osti_1356726,
title = {Multi-wavelength observations of blazar AO 0235+164 in the 2008-2009 flaring state},
author = {Ackermann, M. and Ajello, M. and Ballet, J. and Barbiellini, G. and Bastieri, D. and Bellazzini, R. and Blandford, R. D. and Bloom, E. D. and Bonamente, E. and Borgland, A. W. and Bottacini, E. and Bregeon, J. and Brigida, M. and Bruel, P. and Buehler, R. and Buson, S. and Caliandro, G. A. and Cameron, R. A. and Caraveo, P. A. and Casandjian, J. M. and Cavazzuti, E. and Cecchi, C. and Charles, E. and Chekhtman, A. and Chiang, J. and Ciprini, S. and Claus, R. and Cohen-Tanugi, J. and Cutini, S. and D'Ammando, F. and de Palma, F. and Dermer, C. D. and do Couto e Silva, E. and Drell, P. S. and Drlica-Wagner, A. and Dubois, R. and Favuzzi, C. and Fegan, S. J. and Ferrara, E. C. and Focke, W. B. and Fortin, P. and Fuhrmann, L. and Fukazawa, Y. and Fusco, P. and Gargano, F. and Gasparrini, D. and Gehrels, N. and Germani, S. and Giglietto, N. and Giommi, P. and Giordano, F. and Giroletti, M. and Glanzman, T. and Godfrey, G. and Grenier, I. A. and Guiriec, S. and Hadasch, D. and Hayashida, M. and Hughes, R. E. and Itoh, R. and Jóhannesson, G. and Johnson, A. S. and Katagiri, H. and Kataoka, J. and Knödlseder, J. and Kuss, M. and Lande, J. and Larsson, S. and Lee, S. -H. and Longo, F. and Loparco, F. and Lott, B. and Lovellette, M. N. and Lubrano, P. and Madejski, G. M. and Mazziotta, M. N. and McEnery, J. E. and Mehault, J. and Michelson, P. F. and Mitthumsiri, W. and Mizuno, T. and Monte, C. and Monzani, M. E. and Morselli, A. and Moskalenko, I. V. and Murgia, S. and Naumann-Godo, M. and Nishino, S. and Norris, J. P. and Nuss, E. and Ohsugi, T. and Okumura, A. and Omodei, N. and Orlando, E. and Ozaki, M. and Paneque, D. and Panetta, J. H. and Pelassa, V. and Pesce-Rollins, M. and Pierbattista, M. and Piron, F. and Pivato, G. and Porter, T. A. and Rainò, S. and Rando, R. and Rastawicki, D. and Razzano, M. and Readhead, A. and Reimer, A. and Reimer, O. and Reyes, L. C. and Richards, J. L. and Sbarra, C. and Sgrò, C. and Siskind, E. J. and Spandre, G. and Spinelli, P. and Szostek, A. and Takahashi, H. and Tanaka, T. and Thayer, J. G. and Thayer, J. B. and Thompson, D. J. and Tinivella, M. and Torres, D. F. and Tosti, G. and Troja, E. and Usher, T. L. and Vandenbroucke, J. and Vasileiou, V. and Vianello, G. and Vitale, V. and Waite, A. P. and Winer, B. L. and Wood, K. S. and Yang, Z. and Zimmer, S. and Moderski, R. and Nalewajko, K. and Sikora, M. and Villata, M. and Raiteri, C. M. and Aller, H. D. and Aller, M. F. and Arkharov, A. A. and Benítez, E. and Berdyugin, A. and Blinov, D. A. and Boettcher, M. and Bravo Calle, O. J. A. and Buemi, C. S. and Carosati, D. and Chen, W. P. and Diltz, C. and Di Paola, A. and Dolci, M. and Efimova, N. V. and Forné, E. and Gurwell, M. A. and Heidt, J. and Hiriart, D. and Jordan, B. and Kimeridze, G. and Konstantinova, T. S. and Kopatskaya, E. N. and Koptelova, E. and Kurtanidze, O. M. and Lähteenmäki, A. and Larionova, E. G. and Larionova, L. V. and Larionov, V. M. and Leto, P. and Lindfors, E. and Lin, H. C. and Morozova, D. A. and Nikolashvili, M. G. and Nilsson, K. and Oksman, M. and Roustazadeh, P. and Sievers, A. and Sigua, L. A. and Sillanpää, A. and Takahashi, T. and Takalo, L. O. and Tornikoski, M. and Trigilio, C. and Troitsky, I. S. and Umana, G. and Angelakis, E. and Krichbaum, T. P. and Nestoras, I. and Riquelme, D. and Krips, M. and Trippe, S. and Arai, A. and Kawabata, K. S. and Sakimoto, K. and Sasada, M. and Sato, S. and Uemura, M. and Yamanaka, M. and Yoshida, M. and Belloni, T. and Tagliaferri, G. and Bonning, E. W. and Isler, J. and Urry, C. M. and Hoversten, E. and Falcone, A. and Pagani, C. and Stroh, M.},
abstractNote = {The blazar AO 0235+164 (z = 0.94) has been one of the most active objects observed by Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) since its launch in Summer 2008. In addition to the continuous coverage by Fermi, contemporaneous observations were carried out from the radio to γ-ray bands between 2008 September and 2009 February.Here, we summarize the rich multi-wavelength data collected during the campaign (including F-GAMMA, GASP-WEBT, Kanata, OVRO, RXTE, SMARTS, Swift, and other instruments), examine the cross-correlation between the light curves measured in the different energy bands, and interpret the resulting spectral energy distributions in the context of well-known blazar emission models. We also find that the γ-ray activity is well correlated with a series of near-IR/optical flares, accompanied by an increase in the optical polarization degree. On the other hand, the X-ray light curve shows a distinct 20 day high state of unusually soft spectrum, which does not match the extrapolation of the optical/UV synchrotron spectrum. We tentatively interpret this feature as the bulk Compton emission by cold electrons contained in the jet, which requires an accretion disk corona with an effective covering factor of 19% at a distance of 100 R g. Finally, we model the broadband spectra with a leptonic model with external radiation dominated by the infrared emission from the dusty torus.},
doi = {10.1088/0004-637X/751/2/159},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
issn = {0004-637X},
number = 2,
volume = 751,
place = {United States},
year = {2012},
month = {5}
}

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