skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Purely electronic mechanism of electrolyte gating of indium tin oxide thin films

Abstract

Epitaxial indium tin oxide films have been grown on both LaAlO 3 and yttria-stabilized zirconia substrates using RF magnetron sputtering. Electrolyte gating causes a large change in the film resistance that occurs immediately after the gate voltage is applied, and shows no hysteresis during the charging/discharging processes. When two devices are patterned next to one another and the first one gated through an electrolyte, the second one shows no changes in conductance, in contrast to what happens in materials (like tungsten oxide) susceptible to ionic electromigration and intercalation. These findings indicate that electrolyte gating in indium tin oxide triggers a pure electronic process (electron depletion or accumulation, depending on the polarity of the gate voltage), with no electrochemical reactions involved. Electron accumulation occurs in a very thin layer near the film surface, which becomes highly conductive. These results contribute to our understanding of the electrolyte gating mechanism in complex oxides and may be relevant for applications of electric double layer transistor devices.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1]
  1. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
  2. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1303002
Report Number(s):
BNL-112455-2016-JA
Journal ID: ISSN 2045-2322; R&D Project: MA509MACA; KC0203020
Grant/Contract Number:
SC00112704
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Scientific Reports
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 6; Journal ID: ISSN 2045-2322
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY

Citation Formats

Leng, X., Bozovic, I., and Bollinger, A. T. Purely electronic mechanism of electrolyte gating of indium tin oxide thin films. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1038/srep31239.
Leng, X., Bozovic, I., & Bollinger, A. T. Purely electronic mechanism of electrolyte gating of indium tin oxide thin films. United States. doi:10.1038/srep31239.
Leng, X., Bozovic, I., and Bollinger, A. T. 2016. "Purely electronic mechanism of electrolyte gating of indium tin oxide thin films". United States. doi:10.1038/srep31239. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1303002.
@article{osti_1303002,
title = {Purely electronic mechanism of electrolyte gating of indium tin oxide thin films},
author = {Leng, X. and Bozovic, I. and Bollinger, A. T.},
abstractNote = {Epitaxial indium tin oxide films have been grown on both LaAlO3 and yttria-stabilized zirconia substrates using RF magnetron sputtering. Electrolyte gating causes a large change in the film resistance that occurs immediately after the gate voltage is applied, and shows no hysteresis during the charging/discharging processes. When two devices are patterned next to one another and the first one gated through an electrolyte, the second one shows no changes in conductance, in contrast to what happens in materials (like tungsten oxide) susceptible to ionic electromigration and intercalation. These findings indicate that electrolyte gating in indium tin oxide triggers a pure electronic process (electron depletion or accumulation, depending on the polarity of the gate voltage), with no electrochemical reactions involved. Electron accumulation occurs in a very thin layer near the film surface, which becomes highly conductive. These results contribute to our understanding of the electrolyte gating mechanism in complex oxides and may be relevant for applications of electric double layer transistor devices.},
doi = {10.1038/srep31239},
journal = {Scientific Reports},
number = ,
volume = 6,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 8
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Save / Share:
  • Sn doped CuInO{sub 2} thin films having a single delafossite phase have been synthesized by magnetron sputtering technique. A gradual decrease in the activation energy from 0.43 to about 0.10 eV and a large increase in conductivity are observed in Sn doped samples with increasing fraction of crystallites having (006) orientation due to an increase in substrate temperature. Due to thermally activated carrier transport along O-A-O layers and activated carrier generation along BO{sub 6} layers, crystallite orientation becomes a crucial factor in controlling the conduction in delafossite thin films.
  • Transparent conducting magnesium indium oxide films (MgIn{sub 2}O{sub 4}) were deposited on to quartz substrates without a buffer layer at an optimized deposition temperature of 450 deg. C to achieve high transmittance in the visible spectral range and electrical conductivity in the low temperature region. Magnesium ions are distributed over the tetrahedral and octahedral sites of the inverted spinel structure with preferential orientation along (3 1 1) Miller plane. The possible mechanism that promotes conductivity in this system is the charge transfer between the resident divalent (Mg{sup 2+}) and trivalent (In{sup 3+}) cations in addition to the available oxygen vacanciesmore » in the lattice. A room temperature electrical conductivity of 1.5 x 10{sup -5} S cm{sup -1} and an average transmittance >75% have been achieved. Hall measurements showed n-type conductivity with electron mobility value 0.95 x 10{sup -2} cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} and carrier concentration 2.7 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}. Smoothness of the film surface observed through atomic force microscope measurements favors this material for gas sensing and opto-electronic device development.« less
  • Zinc indium tin oxide (ZITO) transparent conductive oxide layers were deposited via radio frequency (RF) magnetron co-sputtering at room temperature. A series of samples with gradually varying zinc content was investigated. The samples were characterized with x-ray and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (XPS, UPS) to determine the electronic structure of the surface. Valence and conduction bands maxima (VBM, CBM), and work function were determined. The experiments indicate that increasing Zn content results in films with a higher defect rate at the surface leading to the formation of a degenerately doped surface layer if the Zn content surpasses {approx}50%. Furthermore, the experimentsmore » demonstrate that ZITO is susceptible to ultraviolet light induced work function reduction, similar to what was earlier observed on ITO and TiO{sub 2} films.« less
  • Highlights: • REELS analysis can provide optical dispersion and electronic properties of oxide materials. • The band gap varied with In/Zn/Sn compositions and increased after annealing. • The optical properties were examined using REELS in conjunction with the Tougaard–Yubero model. • The dispersion parameters were determined by a single-oscillator Wemple–DiDomenico model. • The Zn and Sn contents play a crucial role in determining the single-oscillator constant and dispersion energy of IZTO thin films. - Abstract: The electronic properties and optical dispersion of indium zinc tin oxide (IZTO) films with different cation compositions were investigated by reflection electron energy loss spectroscopymore » (REELS). The REELS spectra of IZTO films revealed that the band gap varied with different Sn/Zn ratios and In content. The optical properties were examined with REELS data using Tougaard–Yubero model and the results were compared with the envelope of the transmission spectra obtained using a UV-spectrometer. The dispersion behavior of the refractive index from REELS results was studied in terms of the single-oscillator Wemple–DiDomenico model. The results showed that the different compositions of In/Zn/Sn caused a change in the dispersion parameters of IZTO thin films in contrast to the static values of refractive indices and dielectric constant which remained the same. Our work demonstrated that REELS is an efficient tool to study the optical properties of a material by obtaining the optical parameters.« less