skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: University of Hawaii Laboratory Explosion, What went wrong? What went wrong? A Mentor and a Student Perspective IWSST Quarterly Presentation

Abstract

This document summarizes an incident where a large volume of explosive gas was detonated at the UH-Manoa's School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology. This description is used as an example to teach lab safety.

Authors:
 [1];  [1]
  1. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1257104
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-16-24117
DOE Contract Number:
AC52-06NA25396
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
99 GENERAL AND MISCELLANEOUS; Occupational Safety and Training

Citation Formats

Hanson, Christina J., and Spencer, Khalil J. University of Hawaii Laboratory Explosion, What went wrong? What went wrong? A Mentor and a Student Perspective IWSST Quarterly Presentation. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.2172/1257104.
Hanson, Christina J., & Spencer, Khalil J. University of Hawaii Laboratory Explosion, What went wrong? What went wrong? A Mentor and a Student Perspective IWSST Quarterly Presentation. United States. doi:10.2172/1257104.
Hanson, Christina J., and Spencer, Khalil J. 2016. "University of Hawaii Laboratory Explosion, What went wrong? What went wrong? A Mentor and a Student Perspective IWSST Quarterly Presentation". United States. doi:10.2172/1257104. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1257104.
@article{osti_1257104,
title = {University of Hawaii Laboratory Explosion, What went wrong? What went wrong? A Mentor and a Student Perspective IWSST Quarterly Presentation},
author = {Hanson, Christina J. and Spencer, Khalil J.},
abstractNote = {This document summarizes an incident where a large volume of explosive gas was detonated at the UH-Manoa's School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology. This description is used as an example to teach lab safety.},
doi = {10.2172/1257104},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}

Technical Report:

Save / Share:
  • Recent advances in computational chemistry have made it feasible to design many types of molecules and predict their properties theoretically. The author applied these techniques to the design of organometallic transition-metal dyes absorbing in the near-infrared region of the spectrum which possess the combination of a large molar extinction coefficient, good chemical and thermal stability, and a high solubility in liquid crystal (LC) hosts. These properties are required for the dye to function as a near-infrared (IR) attenuator in a liquid crystal point diffraction interferometer (LCPDI) device that will be used as a beam diagnostic on the 60-beam OMEGA solid-statemore » Nd:glass laser system at the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics. Using commercially available software, both the absorption spectra and solubility characteristics of bis[1,2-di-(p-n alkoxyphenyl)ethane-1,2-dithione] nickel dye complexes were modeled in an isotropic host (cyclohexane) and, in most cases, excellent agreement was found with experimental data. Two additional compounds utilizing the same nickel dithiolene core but with alkylthio and phenylalkylthio terminal groups have been designed and show excellent potential to produce dramatic improvements in both solubility and optical density (absorbance) in liquid crystalline hosts. Based upon my work, a new dye not previously reported, 2(C{sub 4}S)2(C{sub 4}SPh)DTNi, has been proposed to satisfy the LCPDI device requirements. The nickel dithiolene dyes may also find important applications in other technology areas such as near-IR photography and laser-based near-IR communications.« less
  • The powerful lasers needed for ICF can only produce light in the infrared wavelengths. However, the one micron wavelength produced by the neodymium glass that powers OMEGA and other lasers used for fusion research does not efficiently compress the fuel pellet. This happens because the infrared light is not well absorbed by the target, and because of the creation of suprathermal electrons. These suprathermal electrons preheat the fuel, adding extra resistance to compression. To eliminate these problems associated with longer wavelengths of light, the process of frequency converting the laser beam was invented. This process efficiently converts the initial beammore » to a beam which has three times the frequency and one third the wavelength. The third-harmonic beam, in the UV range, has a better absorption rate. The PV-WAVE computer program that the author has written has shown that increasing the frequency of SSD (Smoothing by Spectral Dispersion) on OMEGA to approximately 10 GHz as planned will not hurt the third harmonic generation conversion efficiency significantly. The increased bandwidth and increased frequency of SSD will make the laser beams that strike the target on OMEGA much smoother and more uniform than ever before. Therefore it is both safe and advisable to add a second tripler crystal to the OMEGA system and decrease the SSD time cycle to around 100 picoseconds. Since the conversion efficiency remains high up to approximately 30 GHz, more experiments on OMEGA may be carried out with even higher modulation frequencies. These modifications to the existing OMEGA laser should make target irradiation more uniform, leading to more uniform compression and hopefully, a higher energy yield.« less
  • Phase-shifting interferometry has many advantages, and the phase shifting nature of the Liquid Crystal Point Diffraction Interferometer (LCPDI) promises to provide significant improvement over other current OMEGA wavefront sensors. However, while phase-shifting capabilities improve its accuracy as an interferometer, phase-shifting itself introduces errors. Phase-shifting algorithms are designed to eliminate certain types of phase-shift errors, and it is important to chose an algorithm that is best suited for use with the LCPDI. Using polarization microscopy, the authors have observed a correlation between LC alignment around the microsphere and fringe behavior. After designing a procedure to compare phase-shifting algorithms, they were ablemore » to predict the accuracy of two particular algorithms through computer modeling of device-specific phase shift-errors.« less
  • Future inertial-fusion experiments on Omega will utilize {approximately} 1 mm-diameter cryogenic targets that have a {approximately} 100-{micro}m-thick, uniformly-frozen fuel layer on their interior. It is desired that they have a stress-free wall thickness < 1 {micro}m and an rms surface roughness < 20 nm. A design-of-experiments (DOE) approach was used to characterize a glow-discharge-polymerization coater built at LLE to fabricate smooth, stress-free capsules with submicron wall thicknesses. The DOE approach was selected because several parameters can be changed simultaneously in a manner which allows the minimum number of runs to be performed to obtain statistically-relevant data. Planar, silicon substrates weremore » coated with {approximately} 3--5 {micro}m of polymer and profilometry was used to determine the coating rate, the film stress, and the surface roughness. The coating rate was found to depend on the trans-2-butene/hydrogen ratio, the total gas-flow rate, the total chamber pressure, and the RF power. In addition, a two-parameter interaction between the total pressure and the RF power also affects the coating rate. The film stress depends on the total chamber pressure and the total mass-flow rate. The surface roughness is independent of the parameters studied. Preliminary results indicate that capsules can be produced rapidly without affecting the smoothness of their outside surface and without residual stress in their walls.« less
  • The Liquid Crystal Point Diffraction Interferometer (LCPDI) can be employed to evaluate the Omega Laser system for optimum firing capabilities. This device utilizes a nickel dithiolene infrared absorbing liquid crystal dye dissolved in a liquid crystal host medium (Merck E7). Three nickel dithiolene dyes were characterized for both their solubility in the E7 host and their infrared spectral absorption.