skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Non-destructive investigation of thermoplastic reinforced composites

Abstract

This paper studies various manufacturing defects in glass fiber/Polypropylene (PP) composite parts and their methods of detection. Foreign Object Inclusion (FOI) of different shapes, sizes, and materials were placed in a glass fiber/PP panel made by compression molding. The paper aims to characterize the fiber orientation and fiber related defects such as fiber waviness in the composite specimen. Comprehensive investigation for different Non Destructive Evaluation (NDE) techniques, namely X-ray radiography and Ultrasonic Testing (UT) techniques to trace and characterize the embedded defects and the composite texture are presented. Conventional X-ray radiography successfully identified the fiber orientation in two dimension (2-D) plane; however, information for the sample depth was not captured. The radiography techniques showed low relative errors for the defect size measurements (maximum error was below 9.5%) when compared to the ultrasonic techniques. Ultrasonic techniques were able to map all the embedded artificial defects. Phase Array (PA) ultrasonic technique was able to precisely locate the FOI in the glass fiber/PP specimen. Nerveless, the shape and size of the defects were not accurately determined due to the high signal attenuation and distortion characteristics of the E-glass fiber.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3]
  1. Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  2. Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)
  3. Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
1254791
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1326439
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Composites. Part B, Engineering
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 97; Journal ID: ISSN 1359-8368
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Hassen, Ahmed, Taheri, Hossein, and Vaidya, Uday. Non-destructive investigation of thermoplastic reinforced composites. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1016/j.compositesb.2016.05.006.
Hassen, Ahmed, Taheri, Hossein, & Vaidya, Uday. Non-destructive investigation of thermoplastic reinforced composites. United States. doi:10.1016/j.compositesb.2016.05.006.
Hassen, Ahmed, Taheri, Hossein, and Vaidya, Uday. Mon . "Non-destructive investigation of thermoplastic reinforced composites". United States. doi:10.1016/j.compositesb.2016.05.006. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1254791.
@article{osti_1254791,
title = {Non-destructive investigation of thermoplastic reinforced composites},
author = {Hassen, Ahmed and Taheri, Hossein and Vaidya, Uday},
abstractNote = {This paper studies various manufacturing defects in glass fiber/Polypropylene (PP) composite parts and their methods of detection. Foreign Object Inclusion (FOI) of different shapes, sizes, and materials were placed in a glass fiber/PP panel made by compression molding. The paper aims to characterize the fiber orientation and fiber related defects such as fiber waviness in the composite specimen. Comprehensive investigation for different Non Destructive Evaluation (NDE) techniques, namely X-ray radiography and Ultrasonic Testing (UT) techniques to trace and characterize the embedded defects and the composite texture are presented. Conventional X-ray radiography successfully identified the fiber orientation in two dimension (2-D) plane; however, information for the sample depth was not captured. The radiography techniques showed low relative errors for the defect size measurements (maximum error was below 9.5%) when compared to the ultrasonic techniques. Ultrasonic techniques were able to map all the embedded artificial defects. Phase Array (PA) ultrasonic technique was able to precisely locate the FOI in the glass fiber/PP specimen. Nerveless, the shape and size of the defects were not accurately determined due to the high signal attenuation and distortion characteristics of the E-glass fiber.},
doi = {10.1016/j.compositesb.2016.05.006},
journal = {Composites. Part B, Engineering},
number = ,
volume = 97,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon May 09 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Mon May 09 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 5works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:
  • Treatment of mica, glass microspheres, milled glass fibers and commercial chopped fiberglass with azidosilane coupling agents is shown to significantly improve the mechanical properties of these fillers/reinforcements in polyolefins relative to untreated controls. The unique chemistry of the azido groups allows for coupling with a wide variety of thermoplastic polymers. Surface characterization of native and modified fillers has proven to be a valuable adjunct to composite testing in optimizing the performance of acidosilanes coupling agents in filled or reinforced thermoplastics. 9 references, 9 figures, 3 tables.
  • The introduction of new materials, particularly for aerospace products, is not a simple, quick or cheap task. New materials require extensive and expensive qualification and must meet challenging strength, stiffness, durability, manufacturing, inspection and maintenance requirements. Growth in industry acceptance for fibre reinforced thermoplastic composite systems requires the determination of whole life attributes including both part processing and processed part performance data. For thermoplastic composite materials the interactions between the processing parameters, in-service structural performance and end of life recyclability are potentially interrelated. Given the large number and range of parameters and the complexity of the potential relationships, understanding formore » whole life design must be developed in a systematic building block approach. To assess and demonstrate such an approach this article documents initial coupon level thermoforming trials for a commercially available fibre reinforced thermoplastic laminate, identifying the key interactions between processing and whole life performance characteristics. To examine the role of the thermoforming process parameters on the whole life performance characteristics of the formed part requires a series of manufacturing trials combined with a series of characterisation tests on the manufacturing trial output. Using a full factorial test programme and considering all possible process parameters over a range of potential magnitudes would result in a very large number of manufacturing trials and accompanying characterisation tests. Such an approach would clearly be expensive and require significant time to complete, therefore failing to address the key requirement for a future design methodology capable of rapidly generating design knowledge for new materials and processes. In this work the role of mould tool temperature and blank forming temperature on the thermoforming of a commercially available thermoplastic based composite laminate is investigated followed by post processed part characterization. Key findings include an optimized composite processing window, and the influence of raw material blank forming temperature and mould tool temperature on part crystallinity and flexural strength. This process study forms one element of a major project structure which has been designed to address the gap between design, analysis and manufacturing, using at its core, a digital framework for the creation and management of performance parameters related to the lifecycle performance of thermoplastic composite structures.« less
  • Here, we present a detailed methodology for experimental measurement of fiber orientation distribution in injection-molded discontinuous fiber composites using the method of ellipses on two-dimensional cross sections. Best practices to avoid biases occurring during surface preparation and optical imaging of carbon-fiber-reinforced thermoplastics are discussed. We developed a marker-based watershed transform routine for efficient image segmentation and the separation of touching fiber ellipses. The sensitivity of the averaged orientation tensor to the image sample size is studied for the case of long-fiber thermoplastics. A Mori–Tanaka implementation of the Eshelby model is then employed to quantify the sensitivity of elastic stiffness predictionsmore » to biases in the fiber orientation distribution measurements.« less
  • This paper demonstrates the feasibility of using solid-state magneto-inductive probes for detecting and imaging of steel reinforcing bars embedded within pre-stressed and reinforced concrete. Changes in the inductance of the sensor material are directly proportional to the strength of the measured magnetic field parallel to the sensor. Experimental results obtained by scanning steel bars specimens are presented. General performance characteristics and sensor output limitations are investigated by using different orientations, sensing distance, excitation intensity, bar sizes and geometries.