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Title: Automated retrieval of cloud and aerosol properties from the ARM Raman lidar, part 1: feature detection

Abstract

A Feature detection and EXtinction retrieval (FEX) algorithm for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program’s Raman lidar (RL) has been developed. Presented here is part 1 of the FEX algorithm: the detection of features including both clouds and aerosols. The approach of FEX is to use multiple quantities— scattering ratios derived using elastic and nitro-gen channel signals from two fields of view, the scattering ratio derived using only the elastic channel, and the total volume depolarization ratio— to identify features using range-dependent detection thresholds. FEX is designed to be context-sensitive with thresholds determined for each profile by calculating the expected clear-sky signal and noise. The use of multiple quantities pro-vides complementary depictions of cloud and aerosol locations and allows for consistency checks to improve the accuracy of the feature mask. The depolarization ratio is shown to be particularly effective at detecting optically-thin features containing non-spherical particles such as cirrus clouds. Improve-ments over the existing ARM RL cloud mask are shown. The performance of FEX is validated against a collocated micropulse lidar and observations from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) satellite over the ARM Darwin, Australia site. While we focus on a specific lidar system, the FEXmore » framework presented here is suitable for other Raman or high spectral resolution lidars.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1243274
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-112638
Journal ID: ISSN 0739-0572; KP1701000
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology; Journal Volume: 32; Journal Issue: 11
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Thorsen, Tyler J., Fu, Qiang, Newsom, Rob K., Turner, David D., and Comstock, Jennifer M. Automated retrieval of cloud and aerosol properties from the ARM Raman lidar, part 1: feature detection. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1175/JTECH-D-14-00150.1.
Thorsen, Tyler J., Fu, Qiang, Newsom, Rob K., Turner, David D., & Comstock, Jennifer M. Automated retrieval of cloud and aerosol properties from the ARM Raman lidar, part 1: feature detection. United States. doi:10.1175/JTECH-D-14-00150.1.
Thorsen, Tyler J., Fu, Qiang, Newsom, Rob K., Turner, David D., and Comstock, Jennifer M. Sun . "Automated retrieval of cloud and aerosol properties from the ARM Raman lidar, part 1: feature detection". United States. doi:10.1175/JTECH-D-14-00150.1.
@article{osti_1243274,
title = {Automated retrieval of cloud and aerosol properties from the ARM Raman lidar, part 1: feature detection},
author = {Thorsen, Tyler J. and Fu, Qiang and Newsom, Rob K. and Turner, David D. and Comstock, Jennifer M.},
abstractNote = {A Feature detection and EXtinction retrieval (FEX) algorithm for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program’s Raman lidar (RL) has been developed. Presented here is part 1 of the FEX algorithm: the detection of features including both clouds and aerosols. The approach of FEX is to use multiple quantities— scattering ratios derived using elastic and nitro-gen channel signals from two fields of view, the scattering ratio derived using only the elastic channel, and the total volume depolarization ratio— to identify features using range-dependent detection thresholds. FEX is designed to be context-sensitive with thresholds determined for each profile by calculating the expected clear-sky signal and noise. The use of multiple quantities pro-vides complementary depictions of cloud and aerosol locations and allows for consistency checks to improve the accuracy of the feature mask. The depolarization ratio is shown to be particularly effective at detecting optically-thin features containing non-spherical particles such as cirrus clouds. Improve-ments over the existing ARM RL cloud mask are shown. The performance of FEX is validated against a collocated micropulse lidar and observations from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) satellite over the ARM Darwin, Australia site. While we focus on a specific lidar system, the FEX framework presented here is suitable for other Raman or high spectral resolution lidars.},
doi = {10.1175/JTECH-D-14-00150.1},
journal = {Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology},
number = 11,
volume = 32,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Nov 01 00:00:00 EDT 2015},
month = {Sun Nov 01 00:00:00 EDT 2015}
}
  • Automated routines have been developed to derive water vapor mixing ratio, relative humidity, aerosol extinction and backscatter coefficient, and linear depolarization profiles, as well as total precipitable water vapor and aerosol optical thickness, from the operational Raman lidar at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's site in north-central Oklahoma. These routines have been devised to maintain the calibration of these data products, which have proven sensitive to the automatic alignment adjustments that are made periodically by the instrument. Since this Raman lidar does not scan, aerosol extinction cannot be directly computed below approximately 800 m due to the incomplete overlapmore » of the outgoing laser beam with the detector's field of view. Therefore, the extinction-to-backscatter ratio at 1 km is used with the aerosol backscatter coefficient profile to compute aerosol extinction from 60 m to the level of complete overlap. Comparisons of aerosol optical depth derived using these algorithms with a collocated CIMEL sun photometer for clear-sky days over an approximate 2-yr period show a slope of 0.90 with a correlation coefficient of 0.884. Furthermore, comparing the aerosol extinction profile retrieved from this system with that from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center's scanning Raman lidar agrees within 10% for the single available case.« less
  • 10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol depolarization profiles and single layer cloud optical depths from first Turner algorithm
  • 1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm
  • The multiannual global mean of aerosol optical depth at 550 nm (AOD 550) over land is ~0.19, and that over oceans is ~0.13. About 45 % of the Earth surface shows AOD 550 smaller than 0.1. There is a need for measurement techniques that are optimized to measure aerosol optical properties under low AOD conditions. We present an inherently calibrated retrieval (i.e., no need for radiance calibration) to simultaneously measure AOD and the aerosol phase function parameter, g, based on measurements of azimuth distributions of the Raman scattering probability (RSP), the near-absolute rotational Raman scattering (RRS) intensity. We employ radiativemore » transfer model simulations to show that for solar azimuth RSP measurements at solar elevation and solar zenith angle (SZA) smaller than 80°, RSP is insensitive to the vertical distribution of aerosols and maximally sensitive to changes in AOD and g under near-molecular scattering conditions. The University of Colorado two-dimensional Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CU 2-D-MAX-DOAS) instrument was deployed as part of the Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) at Cape Cod, MA, during the summer of 2012 to measure direct sun spectra and RSP from scattered light spectra at solar relative azimuth angles (SRAAs) between 5 and 170°. During two case study days with (1) high aerosol load (17 July, 0.3 < AOD 430 < 0.6) and (2) near-molecular scattering conditions (22 July, AOD 430 < 0.13) we compare RSP-based retrievals of AOD 430 and g with data from a co-located CIMEL sun photometer, Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR), and an airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL-2). The average difference (relative to DOAS) for AOD 430 is +0.012 ± 0.023 (CIMEL), -0.012 ± 0.024 (MFRSR), -0.011 ± 0.014 (HSRL-2), and +0.023 ± 0.013 (CIMEL AOD - MFRSR AOD) and yields the following expressions for correlations between different instruments: DOAS AOD = - (0.019 ± 0.006) + (1.03 ± 0.02)×CIMEL AOD ( R 2 = 0.98), DOAS AOD = -(0.006 ± 0.005)+(1.08 ± 0.02)×MFRSR AOD ( R 2 = 0.98), and CIMEL AOD=(0.013 ± 0.004)+(1.05 ± 0.01)× MFRSR AOD ( R 2=0.99). The average g measured by DOAS on both days was 0.66 ± 0.03, with a difference of 0.014 ± 0.05 compared to CIMEL. Active steps to minimize the error in the RSP help to reduce the uncertainty in retrievals of AOD and g. As AOD decreases and SZA increases, the RSP signal-to-noise ratio increases. At AOD 430 ~ 0.4 and 0.10 the absolute AOD errors are ~ 0.014 and 0.003 at 70° SZA and 0.02 and 0.004 at 35°SZA. Inherently calibrated, precise AOD and g measurements are useful to better characterize the aerosol direct effect in urban polluted and remote pristine environments.« less
  • In this study, the multiannual global mean of aerosol optical depth at 550 nm (AOD 550) over land is ~0.19, and that over oceans is ~0.13. About 45 % of the Earth surface shows AOD 550 smaller than 0.1. There is a need for measurement techniques that are optimized to measure aerosol optical properties under low AOD conditions. We present an inherently calibrated retrieval (i.e., no need for radiance calibration) to simultaneously measure AOD and the aerosol phase function parameter, g, based on measurements of azimuth distributions of the Raman scattering probability (RSP), the near-absolute rotational Raman scattering (RRS) intensity.more » We employ radiative transfer model simulations to show that for solar azimuth RSP measurements at solar elevation and solar zenith angle (SZA) smaller than 80°, RSP is insensitive to the vertical distribution of aerosols and maximally sensitive to changes in AOD and g under near-molecular scattering conditions. The University of Colorado two-dimensional Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CU 2-D-MAX-DOAS) instrument was deployed as part of the Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) at Cape Cod, MA, during the summer of 2012 to measure direct sun spectra and RSP from scattered light spectra at solar relative azimuth angles (SRAAs) between 5 and 170°. During two case study days with (1) high aerosol load (17 July, 0.3 < AOD 430 < 0.6) and (2) near-molecular scattering conditions (22 July, AOD 430 < 0.13) we compare RSP-based retrievals of AOD 430 and g with data from a co-located CIMEL sun photometer, Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR), and an airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL-2). The average difference (relative to DOAS) for AOD 430 is +0.012 ± 0.023 (CIMEL), –0.012 ± 0.024 (MFRSR), –0.011 ± 0.014 (HSRL-2), and +0.023 ± 0.013 (CIMEL AOD –MFRSR AOD) and yields the following expressions for correlations between different instruments: DOAS AOD = –(0.019 ± 0.006) + (1.03 ± 0.02) × CIMEL AOD ( R 2 = 0.98), DOAS AOD = –(0.006 ± 0.005) + (1.08 ± 0.02) × MFRSR AOD ( R 2 = 0.98), and CIMEL AOD = (0.013 ± 0.004) + (1.05 ± 0.01) × MFRSR AOD ( R 2 = 0.99). The average g measured by DOAS on both days was 0.66 ± 0.03, with a difference of 0.014 ± 0.05 compared to CIMEL. Active steps to minimize the error in the RSP help to reduce the uncertainty in retrievals of AOD and g. As AOD decreases and SZA increases, the RSP signal-to-noise ratio increases. At AOD 430 ~0.4 and 0.10 the absolute AOD errors are ~ 0.014 and 0.003 at 70° SZA and 0.02 and 0.004 at 35° SZA. Inherently calibrated, precise AOD and g measurements are useful to better characterize the aerosol direct effect in urban polluted and remote pristine environments.« less
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