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  1. Dynamic modification of pore opening of SAPO-34 by adsorbed surface methoxy species during induction of catalytic methanol-to-olefins reactions

    Here, we report that the pore opening of SAPO-34 can be significantly modified by an adsorbed surface methoxy species during induction of the catalytic methanol-to-olefins process, which offers molecular sieving properties due to physical obstacle of the methoxy group and its adsorption modification to other hydrocarbons. X-ray powder diffraction and Rietveld refinement clearly reveal that the adsorbed single carbon atom as the methoxy group is dynamically created from methanol dehydration on a Brønsted acid site in close proximity to the pore windows. As a result, industrial desirable smaller olefins such as ethylene and propylene can be favourably made at themore » expenses of higher olefins. The structures and fundamental understanding in alteration in the olefins selectivity during induction may allow rational optimisation in catalytic performance under the complex fluidisation conditions.« less
  2. In-situ neutron diffraction and crystal plasticity finite element modeling to study the kinematic stability of retained austenite in bearing steels

    This work integrates in-situ neutron diffraction and crystal plasticity finite element modeling to study the kinematic stability of retained austenite in high carbon bearing steels. The presence of a kinematically metastable retained austenite in bearing steels can significantly affect the macro-mechanical and micro-mechanical material response. Mechanical characterization of metastable austenite is a critical component in accurately capturing the micro-mechanical behavior under typical application loads. Traditional mechanical characterization techniques are unable to discretely quantify the micro-mechanical response of the austenite, and as a result, the computational predictions rely heavily on trial and error or qualitative descriptions of the austenite phase. Inmore » order to overcome this, in the present work, we use in-situ neutron diffraction of a uniaxial tension test of an A485 Grade 1 bearing steel specimen. The mechanical response determined from the neutron diffraction analysis was incorporated into a hybrid crystal plasticity finite element model that accounts for the martensite's crystal plasticity and the stress-assisted transformation from austenite to martensite in bearing steels. Here, the modeling response was used to estimate the single crystal elastic constants of the austenite and martensite phases. Finally, the results show that using in-situ neutron diffraction, coupled with a crystal plasticity model, can successfully predict both the micro-mechanical and macro-mechanical responses of bearing steels while accounting for the martensitic transformation of the retained austenite.« less
  3. Understanding the initial irreversibility of metal sulfides for sodium-ion batteries via operando techniques

    Transition metal sulfides are promising high capacity anodes for sodium-ion batteries in terms of the conversion reaction with multiple alkali metal ions. Nonetheless, some inherent challenges such as sluggish sodium ion diffusion kinetics, large volume change, and poor cycle stability limit their implementation. Addressing these issues necessitates a comprehensive understanding the complex sodium ion storage mechanism particularly at the initial cycle. Here, taking nickel subsulfide as a model material, we reveal the complicated conversion reaction mechanism upon the first cycle by combining in operando 2D transmission X-ray microscopy with X-ray absorption spectroscopy, ex-situ 3D nano-tomography, high-energy X-ray diffraction and electrochemicalmore » impedance spectroscopy. This study demonstrates that the microstructure evolution, inherent slow sodium ions diffusion kinetics, and slow ion mobility at the two-phase interface contribute to the high irreversible capacity upon the first cycle. Finally, such understandings are critical for developing the conversion reaction materials with the desired electrochemical activity and stability.« less
  4. Dynamics of recombination via conical intersection in a semiconductor nanocrystal

    The ultrafast dynamics of nonradiative recombination at dangling bond defects is elucidated by nanoscale multireferenceab initiomolecular dynamics simulations.
  5. Neutronics Phenomena Important in Modeling and Simulation of Liquid-Fuel Molten Salt Reactors

    This paper discusses liquid-fuel molten salt reactors, how they will operate under normal, transient, and accident conditions, and the results of an expert elicitation to determine the corresponding neutronic phenomena important to understanding their behavior. Identifying these phenomena will enable the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to develop or identify modeling functionalities and tools required to carry out confirmatory analyses that examine the validity and accuracy of applicants’ calculations and help determine the margin of safety in plant design. NRC frequently does an expert elicitation using a Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) to identify and evaluate the state ofmore » knowledge of important modeling phenomena. However, few details about the design of these reactors and the sequence of events during accidents are known, so the process used was considered a preliminary PIRT. A panel met to define phenomena that would need to be modeled and considered the impact/importance of each phenomenon with respect to specific figures-of-merit (FoMs) (e.g., power distribution, fluence, kinetics parameters and reactivity). Each FoM reflected a potential impact on radionuclide release or loss of a barrier to release. The panel considered what the path forward might be with respect to being able to model the phenomenon in a simulation code. Results are explained for both thermal and fast spectrum designs.« less
  6. Thermal-Hydraulics Phenomena Important in Modeling and Simulation of Liquid-Fuel Molten Salt Reactors

    This paper discusses liquid-fuel molten salt reactors, how they will operate under normal, transient, and accident conditions, and the results of an expert elicitation to determine the corresponding thermalhydraulic phenomena important to understanding their behavior. Identifying these phenomena will enable the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to develop or identify modeling functionalities and tools required to carry out confirmatory analyses that examine the validity and accuracy of an applicant’s calculations and help determine the margin of safety in plant design. NRC frequently does an expert elicitation using a Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) to identify and evaluate the statemore » of knowledge of important modeling phenomena. However, few details about the design of these reactors and the sequence of events during accidents are known, so the process used was considered a preliminary PIRT. A panel met to define phenomena that would need to be modeled and considered the impact/importance of each phenomenon with respect to specific figures-of-merit (FoMs) (e.g., salt temperature, velocity, and composition). Each FoM reflected a potential impact on radionuclide release or loss of a barrier to release. The panel considered what the path forward might be with respect to being able to model the phenomenon in a simulation code. Results are explained for both thermal and fast spectrum designs.« less
  7. Direct ink write fabrication of transparent ceramic gain media

    Solid-state laser gain media based on the garnet structure with two spatially distinct but optically contiguous regions have been fabricated. Transparent gain media comprised of a central core of Y 2.97Nd 0.03Al 5.00O 12.00 (Nd:YAG) and an undoped cladding region of Y 3Al 5O 12 (YAG) were fabricated by direct ink write and transparent ceramic processing. Direct ink write (DIW) was employed to form the green body, offering a general route to preparing functionally structured solid-state laser gain media. Lastly, fully-dense transparent optical ceramics in a “top hat” geometry with YAG/Nd:YAG have been fabricated by DIW methods with optical scattermore » at 1064 nm of <3%/cm.« less
  8. Effect of the SiO 2 support on the catalytic performance of Ag/ZrO 2 /SiO 2 catalysts for the single-bed production of butadiene from ethanol

    A ternary Ag/ZrO2/SiO2 catalyst system was studied for the single-step conversion of ethanol to butadiene by varying the catalyst composition (Ag, Ir, or Pt metal component, Ag/ZrO2 loading, and choice of SiO2 support) and operating conditions (space velocity and feed gas composition). Exceptional catalytic performance was achieved over a 1%Ag/4%ZrO2/SiO2-SBA-16 catalyst leading to 99% conversion and 71% butadiene selectivity while operating under mild conditions (325ºC, 1 atm, 0.23 hr-1). Several classes of silica (i.e., silica gels, fumed silicas, meoporous silicas) were evaluated as support, and SBA-16 was found to be the most promising. The nature of the SiO2 support wasmore » found to have a strong influence on both conversion and selectivity. Higher SiO2 catalyst surface areas lead to greater conversion due to increased Ag dispersion thus accelerating the initial ethanol dehydrogenation reaction. By independently varying Ag and ZrO2 loading, Ag was found to be the main component affecting ethanol conversion. Butadiene selectivity varied depending on the concentration of ZrO2 and acidic characteristics of the SiO2 support. A direct relationship between butadiene selectivity and concentration of Lewis acid sites was evidenced. Also, adding H2 to the feed had little effect on conversion while improving catalytic stability, however, selectivity to butadiene was decreased. Finally, catalyst regenerability was successfully demonstrated for several cycles.« less
  9. Prediction of novel stable Fe-V-Si ternary phase

    Genetic algorithm searches based on a cluster expansion model are performed to search for stable phases of Fe-V-Si ternary. Here, we identify a new thermodynamically, dynamically and mechanically stable ternary phase of Fe 5V 2Si with 2 formula units in a tetragonal unit cell. The formation energy of this new ternary phase is -36.9 meV/atom below the current ternary convex hull. The magnetic moment of Fe in the new structure varies from -0.30-2.52 μ B depending strongly on the number of Fe nearest neighbors. The total magnetic moment is 10.44 μ B/unit cell for new Fe 5V 2Si structure andmore » the system is ordinarily metallic.« less
  10. American Society of Composites, 32nd Technical Conference

    This paper will present a general methodology by which weave draping manufacturing simulation results can be utilized to include the effects of weave draping and scissor angle in a structural multiscale simulation. While the methodology developed is general in nature, this paper will specifically demonstrate the methodology applied to a truncated pyramid, utilizing manufacturing simulation weave draping results from ESI PAM-FORM, and multiscale simulation using Altair Multiscale Designer (MDS) and OptiStruct. From a multiscale simulation perspective, the weave draping manufacturing simulation results will be used to develop a series of woven unit cells which cover the range of weave scissormore » angles existing within the part. For each unit cell, a multiscale material model will be developed, and applied to the corresponding spatial locations within the structural simulation mesh. In addition, the principal material orientation will be mapped from the wave draping manufacturing simulation mesh to the structural simulation mesh using Altair HyperMesh mapping technology. Results of the coupled simulation will be compared and verified against experimental data of the same available via General Motors (GM) Department of Energy (DOE) project.« less
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