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  1. This work integrates in-situ neutron diffraction and crystal plasticity finite element modeling to study the kinematic stability of retained austenite in high carbon bearing steels. The presence of a kinematically metastable retained austenite in bearing steels can significantly affect the macro-mechanical and micro-mechanical material response. Mechanical characterization of metastable austenite is a critical component in accurately capturing the micro-mechanical behavior under typical application loads. Traditional mechanical characterization techniques are unable to discretely quantify the micro-mechanical response of the austenite, and as a result, the computational predictions rely heavily on trial and error or qualitative descriptions of the austenite phase. Inmore » order to overcome this, in the present work, we use in-situ neutron diffraction of a uniaxial tension test of an A485 Grade 1 bearing steel specimen. The mechanical response determined from the neutron diffraction analysis was incorporated into a hybrid crystal plasticity finite element model that accounts for the martensite's crystal plasticity and the stress-assisted transformation from austenite to martensite in bearing steels. Here, the modeling response was used to estimate the single crystal elastic constants of the austenite and martensite phases. Finally, the results show that using in-situ neutron diffraction, coupled with a crystal plasticity model, can successfully predict both the micro-mechanical and macro-mechanical responses of bearing steels while accounting for the martensitic transformation of the retained austenite.« less
  2. The ultrafast dynamics of nonradiative recombination at dangling bond defects is elucidated by nanoscale multireferenceab initiomolecular dynamics simulations.
  3. Energy efficiency is a key performance indicator for battery storage systems. A detailed electro-thermal model of a stationary lithium-ion battery system is developed and an evaluation of its energy efficiency is conducted. The model offers a holistic approach to calculating conversion losses and auxiliary power consumption. Sub-models for battery rack, power electronics, thermal management as well as the control and monitoring components are developed and coupled to a comprehensive model. The simulation is parametrized based on a prototype 192 kWh system using lithium iron phosphate batteries connected to the low voltage grid. The key loss mechanisms are identified, thoroughly analyzedmore » and modeled. Generic profiles featuring various system operation modes are evaluated to show the characteristics of stationary battery systems. Typically the losses in the power electronics outweigh the losses in the battery at low power operating points. The auxiliary power consumption dominates for low system utilization rates. For estimation of real-world performance, the grid applications Primary Control Reserve, Secondary Control Reserve and the storage of surplus photovoltaic power are evaluated. Conversion round-trip efficiency is in the range of 70-80%. Finally, overall system efficiency, which also considers system power consumption, is 8-13 percentage points lower for Primary Control Reserve and the photovoltaic-battery application. However, for Secondary Control Reserve, the total round-trip efficiency is found to be extremely low at 23% due to the low energy throughput of this application type.« less
  4. Genetic algorithm searches based on a cluster expansion model are performed to search for stable phases of Fe-V-Si ternary. Here, we identify a new thermodynamically, dynamically and mechanically stable ternary phase of Fe 5V 2Si with 2 formula units in a tetragonal unit cell. The formation energy of this new ternary phase is -36.9 meV/atom below the current ternary convex hull. The magnetic moment of Fe in the new structure varies from -0.30-2.52 μ B depending strongly on the number of Fe nearest neighbors. The total magnetic moment is 10.44 μ B/unit cell for new Fe 5V 2Si structure andmore » the system is ordinarily metallic.« less
  5. The prediction of U(VI) adsorption onto montmorillonite clay is confounded by the complexities of: (1) the montmorillonite structure in terms of adsorption sites on basal and edge surfaces, and the complex interactions between the electrical double layers at these surfaces, and (2) U(VI) solution speciation, which can include cationic, anionic and neutral species. Previous U(VI)-montmorillonite adsorption and modeling studies have typically expanded classical surface complexation modeling approaches, initially developed for simple oxides, to include both cation exchange and surface complexation reactions. However, previous models have not taken into account the unique characteristics of electrostatic surface potentials that occur at montmorillonitemore » edge sites, where the electrostatic surface potential of basal plane cation exchange sites influences the surface potential of neighboring edge sites (‘spillover’ effect).« less
  6. Bit retrieval is the problem of reconstructing a periodic binary sequence from its periodic autocorrelation, with applications in cryptography and x-ray crystallography. After defining the problem, with and without noise, we describe and compare various algorithms for solving it. A geometrical constraint satisfaction algorithm, relaxed-reflect-reflect, is currently the best algorithm for noisy bit retrieval.
  7. Due to the excellent balance of strength and ductility exhibited by some Mg-Zn-RE (Y subgroup rare earth element) alloys, which contain icosahedral quasicrystalline precipitates, it is of interest to examine their deformation mechanisms. Furthermore, the internal strain evolution Mg-3at%Zn-0.5 at%Y with 4 vol% i-phase was measured using in-situ neutron diffraction. The extruded samples exhibit an initially weak <10.0> || extrusion direction “rod texture,” distinct from the normally strong texture of extruded Mg alloys, but the grain size is unexceptional (16.7 ± 2.1 μm). The initially weak texture contributes to a nearly symmetric yielding response between tension and compression. The hardeningmore » responses are asymmetric, however, since {10.2} extension twinning is significantly more active during compressive straining, despite the initially weak texture. In-situ neutron diffraction tension and compression experiments parallel to the extrusion direction, together with elasto-plastic self-consistent (EPSC) crystal plasticity modeling, reveal the strength and hardening behavior of individual slip and twinning modes. A model that was previously published about twinning-detwinning (TDT) is implemented within the EPSC framework, and it is proven effective for describing the observed, mild tension-compression asymmetry. This is not possible with previous EPSC-based models of twinning. Finally, the description of hardening within the TDT model is modified, in order to accurately describe the evolution of internal strains within the twins.« less
  8. Indexing Laue patterns of a synchrotron microdiffraction scan can take as much as ten times longer than collecting the data, impeding efficient structural analysis using this technique. Here in this paper, a novel strategy is developed. By comparing the peak positions of adjacent Laue patterns and checking the intensity sequence, grain and phase boundaries are identified, requiring only a limited number of indexing steps for each individual grain. Using this protocol, the Laue patterns can be indexed on the fly as they are taken. The validation of this method is demonstrated by analyzing the microstructure of a laser 3D printedmore » multi-phase/multi-grain Ni-based superalloy.« less
  9. The recent research on adsorption-based lithium recovery from lithium-containing solutions has been centred on adsorption capacity and separation of lithium ion-sieves powder from solutions. Herein, an effective iron-doped lithium titanium oxide (Fe-doped Li 2TiO 3) was synthesized by Fe-doping via solid state reactions followed by acid treatment to form iron-doped lithium ion-sieves (Fe/Ti-x(H)). The resulting solid powder displays both superior adsorption capacity of lithium and high separation efficiency of the adsorbent from the solutions. SEM imaging and BET surface area measurement results showed that at Fe doping levels x ≤ 0.15, Fe-doping led to grain shrinkage as compared to Limore » 2TiO 3 and at the same time the BET surface area increased. The Fe/Ti-0.15(H) exhibited saturated magnetization values of 13.76 emu g -1, allowing effective separation of the material from solid suspensions through the use of a magnet. Consecutive magnetic separation results suggested that the Fe/Ti-0.15(H) powders could be applied at large-scale and continuously removed from LiOH solutions with separation efficiency of 96% or better. Lithium adsorption studies indicated that the equilibrium adsorption capacity of Fe/Ti-0.15(H) in LiOH solutions (1.8 g L -1 Li, pH 12) reached 53.3 mg g -1 within 24 h, which was higher than that of pristine Li 2TiO 3 (50.5 mg g-1) without Fe doping. Competitive adsorption and regeneration results indicated that the Fe/Ti-0.15(H) possessed a high selectivity for Li with facile regeneration. Therefore, it could be expected that the iron-doped lithium ion-sieves have practical applicability potential for large scale lithium extraction and recovery from lithium-bearing solutions.« less
  10. Prior studies on the high-cycle fatigue behavior of nanocrystalline metals have shown that fatigue fracture is associated with abnormal grain growth (AGG). However, those previous studies have been unable to determine if AGG precedes fatigue crack initiation, or vice-versa. The present study shows that AGG indeed occurs prior to crack formation in nanocrystalline Ni-Fe by using a recently developed synchrotron X-ray diffraction modality that has been adapted for in-situ analysis. The technique allows fatigue tests to be interrupted at the initial signs of the AGG process, and subsequent microscopy reveals the precursor damage state preceding crack initiation.

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