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Title: Nanomaterials for LightManagement in Electro-Optical Devices

Abstract

In the past decade, nanostructured materials and nanoparticles have emerged as the necessary ingredients for electrooptical applications and enhancement of device performance, in particular by making use of the light management aspects of the nanomaterials. The application areas that are being transformed profoundly include smart coating devices (e.g., electrochromic, photochromic, and thermochromic devices), solar energy, and sensing. Despite the large volume of work in the past on smart coating devices, and in particular on electrochromic devices and thermochromic fenestrations, for optical transmission or reflection control, applications remain limited because of slow response time and nonuniformity in the case of large surfaces. Recent works in the field indicate that nanostructured electrochromic coatings would be an integral part of the solution to the above problem. One aspect that can thus be focused on would be the fabrication and characterization of the nanostructured smart coating materials and their compatibility with other layers in the overall smart coating device. In the area of solar photovoltaics, nanomaterials have been used in designing light-trapping schemes for inorganic as well as organic solar cells. One particular category of solar cells that has attracted much interest is the plasmonic solar cells in which metallic nanoparticles are incorporated, helpingmore » in enhancing their energy conversion efficiency. Nanostructured solar cells would eventually develop into a 'game changing' technology for making solar cells that are affordable and highly efficient, providing a sizeable alternative energy source for our ever-increasing energy needs. Sensors based on the optical properties of constituting nanostructures and nanoparticles also form a most interesting class of bio- and electrochemical sensing devices. The possibility of synthetizing nanoparticles and structures of specifically desired sizes and shapes has indeed opened a whole new range of sensing applications. In parallel to the experimental development of nanomaterials for light management in devices, theoretical modeling and analysis have also accomplished much progress, and different methods for simulating the optical properties of nanoparticles and structures have been proposed. This special issue of the Journal of Nanomaterials is thus dedicated to articles dealing with nanostructured materials that can be used for light management purpose in different applications. Silicon-rich oxide (SRO) is a dielectric material that contains Si nanoparticles and exhibits interesting physical characteristics for applications in optoelectronic devices. The work by Aceves-Mijares et al. examine, in detail the electro-, cathode- and photoluminescence properties of SRO and discuss the origin of light emission in this type of materials. SRO films, of high and medium silicon excess density, obtained by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition and annealed at 1,100 C have been studied. Results obtained by the authors have led to conclude that SRO emission properties are due to oxidation state nanoagglomerates rather than to nanocrystals, and the emission mechanism is similar to that in the donor-acceptor decay in semiconductors with a specific wide emission spectrum. Two papers are devoted to nanostructured electrochromic thin films, a category of materials most suitable for controlling light transmission or absorption in electrooptical devices, including smart window coatings. Dinh et al. have shown that by mixing nanostructured Ti and W oxides films, one can obtain devices with considerable enhancement of electrochromic efficiency and electrochemical stability as compared to the conventional nonnanostructured films. As large-area mixed Ti and W oxides can be prepared by the simple doctor blade technique followed by an electrochemical process, this type of nanostructured electrochromic films can be considered a good candidate for smart window applications. Djaoued et al. have presented their studies on the synthesis, characterization, and electrochromic applications of porous WO{sub 3} thin films with different nanocrystalline phases. Asymmetric type electrochromic devices have been constructed using hexagonal, monoclinic, and orthorhombic porous WO{sub 3} thin porous films, and their enhanced electrochromic functionality has been well demonstrated. The paper on smart materials by Chen et al. presents the synthesis of thermochromic W-doped VO{sub 2} (monoclinic/rutile) nanopowders using a novel and simple solution-based process as opposed to other conventional techniques such as excimer laser-assisted metal organic deposition and magnetron sputtering. This simple process is based on the reaction of ammonium metavanadate (NH{sub 4}VO{sub 3}) and oxalic acid dihydrate (C{sub 2}H{sub 2}O{sub 4} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O) followed by addition of appropriate ammonium tungstate (N{sub 5}H{sub 37}W{sub 6}O{sub 24} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O).« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4]
  1. Concordia University, Montréal, Québec, H4B 1R6, Canada
  2. Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Australia
  3. Japan Fine Ceramics Center, Nagoya, Japan
  4. ORNL
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program
OSTI Identifier:
1050950
DOE Contract Number:  
DE-AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Journal of Nanomaterials
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: Vol.2012; Journal ID: ISSN 1687-4110
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 14 SOLAR ENERGY; AMMONIUM TUNGSTATES; CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION; DIELECTRIC MATERIALS; EFFICIENCY; ENERGY CONVERSION; ENERGY SOURCES; LIGHT EMITTING DIODES; LIGHT TRANSMISSION; MANAGEMENT; OPTICAL PROPERTIES; ORGANIC SOLAR CELLS; OXALIC ACID; PHOTOLUMINESCENCE; SILICON; SOLAR CELLS; SOLAR ENERGY; THIN FILMS; THIOUREA; TITANIUM OXIDES; VALENCE

Citation Formats

Truong, Vo-Van, Singh, Jai, Tanemura, Sakae, and Hu, Michael Z. Nanomaterials for LightManagement in Electro-Optical Devices. United States: N. p., 2012. Web. doi:10.1155/2012/759750.
Truong, Vo-Van, Singh, Jai, Tanemura, Sakae, & Hu, Michael Z. Nanomaterials for LightManagement in Electro-Optical Devices. United States. doi:10.1155/2012/759750.
Truong, Vo-Van, Singh, Jai, Tanemura, Sakae, and Hu, Michael Z. Sun . "Nanomaterials for LightManagement in Electro-Optical Devices". United States. doi:10.1155/2012/759750.
@article{osti_1050950,
title = {Nanomaterials for LightManagement in Electro-Optical Devices},
author = {Truong, Vo-Van and Singh, Jai and Tanemura, Sakae and Hu, Michael Z.},
abstractNote = {In the past decade, nanostructured materials and nanoparticles have emerged as the necessary ingredients for electrooptical applications and enhancement of device performance, in particular by making use of the light management aspects of the nanomaterials. The application areas that are being transformed profoundly include smart coating devices (e.g., electrochromic, photochromic, and thermochromic devices), solar energy, and sensing. Despite the large volume of work in the past on smart coating devices, and in particular on electrochromic devices and thermochromic fenestrations, for optical transmission or reflection control, applications remain limited because of slow response time and nonuniformity in the case of large surfaces. Recent works in the field indicate that nanostructured electrochromic coatings would be an integral part of the solution to the above problem. One aspect that can thus be focused on would be the fabrication and characterization of the nanostructured smart coating materials and their compatibility with other layers in the overall smart coating device. In the area of solar photovoltaics, nanomaterials have been used in designing light-trapping schemes for inorganic as well as organic solar cells. One particular category of solar cells that has attracted much interest is the plasmonic solar cells in which metallic nanoparticles are incorporated, helping in enhancing their energy conversion efficiency. Nanostructured solar cells would eventually develop into a 'game changing' technology for making solar cells that are affordable and highly efficient, providing a sizeable alternative energy source for our ever-increasing energy needs. Sensors based on the optical properties of constituting nanostructures and nanoparticles also form a most interesting class of bio- and electrochemical sensing devices. The possibility of synthetizing nanoparticles and structures of specifically desired sizes and shapes has indeed opened a whole new range of sensing applications. In parallel to the experimental development of nanomaterials for light management in devices, theoretical modeling and analysis have also accomplished much progress, and different methods for simulating the optical properties of nanoparticles and structures have been proposed. This special issue of the Journal of Nanomaterials is thus dedicated to articles dealing with nanostructured materials that can be used for light management purpose in different applications. Silicon-rich oxide (SRO) is a dielectric material that contains Si nanoparticles and exhibits interesting physical characteristics for applications in optoelectronic devices. The work by Aceves-Mijares et al. examine, in detail the electro-, cathode- and photoluminescence properties of SRO and discuss the origin of light emission in this type of materials. SRO films, of high and medium silicon excess density, obtained by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition and annealed at 1,100 C have been studied. Results obtained by the authors have led to conclude that SRO emission properties are due to oxidation state nanoagglomerates rather than to nanocrystals, and the emission mechanism is similar to that in the donor-acceptor decay in semiconductors with a specific wide emission spectrum. Two papers are devoted to nanostructured electrochromic thin films, a category of materials most suitable for controlling light transmission or absorption in electrooptical devices, including smart window coatings. Dinh et al. have shown that by mixing nanostructured Ti and W oxides films, one can obtain devices with considerable enhancement of electrochromic efficiency and electrochemical stability as compared to the conventional nonnanostructured films. As large-area mixed Ti and W oxides can be prepared by the simple doctor blade technique followed by an electrochemical process, this type of nanostructured electrochromic films can be considered a good candidate for smart window applications. Djaoued et al. have presented their studies on the synthesis, characterization, and electrochromic applications of porous WO{sub 3} thin films with different nanocrystalline phases. Asymmetric type electrochromic devices have been constructed using hexagonal, monoclinic, and orthorhombic porous WO{sub 3} thin porous films, and their enhanced electrochromic functionality has been well demonstrated. The paper on smart materials by Chen et al. presents the synthesis of thermochromic W-doped VO{sub 2} (monoclinic/rutile) nanopowders using a novel and simple solution-based process as opposed to other conventional techniques such as excimer laser-assisted metal organic deposition and magnetron sputtering. This simple process is based on the reaction of ammonium metavanadate (NH{sub 4}VO{sub 3}) and oxalic acid dihydrate (C{sub 2}H{sub 2}O{sub 4} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O) followed by addition of appropriate ammonium tungstate (N{sub 5}H{sub 37}W{sub 6}O{sub 24} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O).},
doi = {10.1155/2012/759750},
journal = {Journal of Nanomaterials},
issn = {1687-4110},
number = ,
volume = Vol.2012,
place = {United States},
year = {2012},
month = {1}
}