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Title: Surface Origin of High Conductivities in Undoped In2O3 Thin Films

Abstract

The microscopic cause of conductivity in transparent conducting oxides like ZnO, In{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and SnO{sub 2} is generally considered to be a point defect mechanism in the bulk, involving intrinsic lattice defects, extrinsic dopants, or unintentional impurities like hydrogen. We confirm here that the defect theory for O-vacancies can quantitatively account for the rather moderate conductivity and off-stoichiometry observed in bulk In{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples under high-temperature equilibrium conditions. However, nominally undoped thin-films of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} can exhibit surprisingly high conductivities exceeding by 4-5 orders of magnitude that of bulk samples under identical conditions (temperature and O{sub 2} partial pressure). Employing surface calculations and thickness-dependent Hall measurements, we demonstrate that surface donors rather than bulk defects dominate the conductivity of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences; Energy Frontier Research Center for Inverse Design
OSTI Identifier:
1039476
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5900-53468
Journal ID: ISSN 0031-9007; PRLTAO; TRN: US201209%%428
DOE Contract Number:  
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Physical Review Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 108; Journal Issue: 1; Related Information: Article No. 016802; Journal ID: ISSN 0031-9007
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
14 SOLAR ENERGY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; CRYSTAL DEFECTS; DEFECTS; HYDROGEN; IMPURITIES; ORIGIN; OXIDES; POINT DEFECTS; THIN FILMS; solar energy; high conductivities; undoped In2O3 thin films

Citation Formats

Lany, Stephan, Zakutayev, Andriy, Mason, Thomas O., Wagner, J. F., Poeppelmeier, K. R., Perkins, John D., Berry, Joseph J., Ginley, David S., and Zunger, Alex. Surface Origin of High Conductivities in Undoped In2O3 Thin Films. United States: N. p., 2012. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.016802.
Lany, Stephan, Zakutayev, Andriy, Mason, Thomas O., Wagner, J. F., Poeppelmeier, K. R., Perkins, John D., Berry, Joseph J., Ginley, David S., & Zunger, Alex. Surface Origin of High Conductivities in Undoped In2O3 Thin Films. United States. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.016802
Lany, Stephan, Zakutayev, Andriy, Mason, Thomas O., Wagner, J. F., Poeppelmeier, K. R., Perkins, John D., Berry, Joseph J., Ginley, David S., and Zunger, Alex. Fri . "Surface Origin of High Conductivities in Undoped In2O3 Thin Films". United States. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.016802.
@article{osti_1039476,
title = {Surface Origin of High Conductivities in Undoped In2O3 Thin Films},
author = {Lany, Stephan and Zakutayev, Andriy and Mason, Thomas O. and Wagner, J. F. and Poeppelmeier, K. R. and Perkins, John D. and Berry, Joseph J. and Ginley, David S. and Zunger, Alex},
abstractNote = {The microscopic cause of conductivity in transparent conducting oxides like ZnO, In{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and SnO{sub 2} is generally considered to be a point defect mechanism in the bulk, involving intrinsic lattice defects, extrinsic dopants, or unintentional impurities like hydrogen. We confirm here that the defect theory for O-vacancies can quantitatively account for the rather moderate conductivity and off-stoichiometry observed in bulk In{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples under high-temperature equilibrium conditions. However, nominally undoped thin-films of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} can exhibit surprisingly high conductivities exceeding by 4-5 orders of magnitude that of bulk samples under identical conditions (temperature and O{sub 2} partial pressure). Employing surface calculations and thickness-dependent Hall measurements, we demonstrate that surface donors rather than bulk defects dominate the conductivity of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.016802},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1039476}, journal = {Physical Review Letters},
issn = {0031-9007},
number = 1,
volume = 108,
place = {United States},
year = {2012},
month = {1}
}

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