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Title: Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction (E-SMARRT): Precision Casting of Steel

Abstract

This project addresses improvements in metal casting processes by reducing scrap and reducing the cost of production, due to scrap reduction from investment casting and yield improvement offered by lost foam casting as compared to no-bake or green sand molding. The objectives for the investment casting portion of the subtask are to improve knowledge of fracture toughness of mold shells and the sources of strength limiting flaws and to understand the effects of wax reclamation procedures on wax properties. Applying 'clean steel' approaches to pouring technology and cleanliness in investment casting of steel are anticipated to improve incoming materials inspection procedures as they affect the microstructure and toughness of the shell. This project focused on two areas of study in the production of steel castings to reduce scrap and save energy: (1) Reducing the amount of shell cracking in investment cast steel production; (2) Investigate the potential of lost foam steel casting The basic findings regarding investment casting shell cracking were: (1) In the case of post pouring cracking, this could be related to phase changes in silica upon cooling and could be delayed by pouring arrangement strategies that maintained the shell surface at temperature for longer time. Employing thismore » delay resulted in less adherent oxidation of castings since the casting was cooler at the time o fair exposure. (2) A model for heat transfer through water saturated shell materials under steam pressure was developed. (3) Initial modeling result of autoclave de-waxing indicated the higher pressure and temperature in the autoclave would impose a steeper temperature gradient on the wax pattern, causing some melt flow prior to bulk expansion and decreasing the stress on the green shell. Basic findings regarding lost foam casting of steel at atmospheric pressure: (1) EPS foam generally decomposes by the collapse mode in steel casting. (2) There is an accumulation of carbon pick-up at the end of the casting opposite the gate. (3) It is recommended that lost foam castings in steel be gated for a quiescent fill in an empty cavity mold to prevent foam occlusion defects from the collapse mode. The energy benefit is primarily in yield savings and lower casting weight per function due to elimination of draft and parting lines for the larger lost foam castings. For the smaller investment casting, scrap losses due to shell cracking will be reduced. Both of these effects will reduce the metal melted per good ton of castings. There will also be less machine stock required per casting which is a yield savings and a small additional energy savings in machining. Downstream savings will come from heavy truck and railroad applications. Application of these processes to heavy truck castings will lighten the heavy truck fleet by about ten pounds per truck. Using ten years to achieve full penetration of the truck fleet at linear rate this will result in a fuel savings of 131 trillion BTU over ten years.« less

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Advanced Technology Institute
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Office of Technology Development (EE-20)
OSTI Identifier:
1028211
Report Number(s):
NA
TRN: US201124%%366
DOE Contract Number:  
FC36-04GO14230
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE; AUTOCLAVES; CARBON; CASTING; CASTINGS; DEFECTS; FRACTURE PROPERTIES; HEAT EXCHANGERS; HEAT TRANSFER; MACHINING; MELTING; MICROSTRUCTURE; MOLDING; OXIDATION; SAND; SCRAP; SILICA; STEAM; STEELS; TEMPERATURE GRADIENTS; Metalcasting; Steel Casting; Investment Casting; Lost Foam Steel Casting

Citation Formats

Dr. Von L. Richards. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction (E-SMARRT): Precision Casting of Steel. United States: N. p., 2011. Web. doi:10.2172/1028211.
Dr. Von L. Richards. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction (E-SMARRT): Precision Casting of Steel. United States. doi:10.2172/1028211.
Dr. Von L. Richards. Fri . "Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction (E-SMARRT): Precision Casting of Steel". United States. doi:10.2172/1028211. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1028211.
@article{osti_1028211,
title = {Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction (E-SMARRT): Precision Casting of Steel},
author = {Dr. Von L. Richards},
abstractNote = {This project addresses improvements in metal casting processes by reducing scrap and reducing the cost of production, due to scrap reduction from investment casting and yield improvement offered by lost foam casting as compared to no-bake or green sand molding. The objectives for the investment casting portion of the subtask are to improve knowledge of fracture toughness of mold shells and the sources of strength limiting flaws and to understand the effects of wax reclamation procedures on wax properties. Applying 'clean steel' approaches to pouring technology and cleanliness in investment casting of steel are anticipated to improve incoming materials inspection procedures as they affect the microstructure and toughness of the shell. This project focused on two areas of study in the production of steel castings to reduce scrap and save energy: (1) Reducing the amount of shell cracking in investment cast steel production; (2) Investigate the potential of lost foam steel casting The basic findings regarding investment casting shell cracking were: (1) In the case of post pouring cracking, this could be related to phase changes in silica upon cooling and could be delayed by pouring arrangement strategies that maintained the shell surface at temperature for longer time. Employing this delay resulted in less adherent oxidation of castings since the casting was cooler at the time o fair exposure. (2) A model for heat transfer through water saturated shell materials under steam pressure was developed. (3) Initial modeling result of autoclave de-waxing indicated the higher pressure and temperature in the autoclave would impose a steeper temperature gradient on the wax pattern, causing some melt flow prior to bulk expansion and decreasing the stress on the green shell. Basic findings regarding lost foam casting of steel at atmospheric pressure: (1) EPS foam generally decomposes by the collapse mode in steel casting. (2) There is an accumulation of carbon pick-up at the end of the casting opposite the gate. (3) It is recommended that lost foam castings in steel be gated for a quiescent fill in an empty cavity mold to prevent foam occlusion defects from the collapse mode. The energy benefit is primarily in yield savings and lower casting weight per function due to elimination of draft and parting lines for the larger lost foam castings. For the smaller investment casting, scrap losses due to shell cracking will be reduced. Both of these effects will reduce the metal melted per good ton of castings. There will also be less machine stock required per casting which is a yield savings and a small additional energy savings in machining. Downstream savings will come from heavy truck and railroad applications. Application of these processes to heavy truck castings will lighten the heavy truck fleet by about ten pounds per truck. Using ten years to achieve full penetration of the truck fleet at linear rate this will result in a fuel savings of 131 trillion BTU over ten years.},
doi = {10.2172/1028211},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2011},
month = {9}
}