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Title: Materials Contrast in Piezoresponse Force Microscopy

Abstract

Piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) contrast in transversally isotropic material corresponding to the case of c{sup +}-c{sup -} domains in tetragonal ferroelectrics is analyzed using Green's function theory by Felten et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 96, 563 (2004)]. A simplified expression for PFM signal as a linear combination of relevant piezoelectric constant is obtained. This analysis is extended to piezoelectric material of arbitrary symmetry with weak elastic and dielectric anisotropies. These results provide a framework for interpretation of PFM signals for systems with unknown or poorly known local elastic and dielectric properties, including nanocrystalline materials, ferroelectric polymers, and biopolymers.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2]
  1. ORNL
  2. National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1003517
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Applied Physics Letters; Journal Volume: 88; Journal Issue: 23
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; DIELECTRIC MATERIALS; DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES; MICROSCOPY; POLYMERS; SYMMETRY

Citation Formats

Kalinin, Sergei V, Eliseev, E. A., and Morozovska, A. N.. Materials Contrast in Piezoresponse Force Microscopy. United States: N. p., 2006. Web. doi:10.1063/1.2206992.
Kalinin, Sergei V, Eliseev, E. A., & Morozovska, A. N.. Materials Contrast in Piezoresponse Force Microscopy. United States. doi:10.1063/1.2206992.
Kalinin, Sergei V, Eliseev, E. A., and Morozovska, A. N.. Sun . "Materials Contrast in Piezoresponse Force Microscopy". United States. doi:10.1063/1.2206992.
@article{osti_1003517,
title = {Materials Contrast in Piezoresponse Force Microscopy},
author = {Kalinin, Sergei V and Eliseev, E. A. and Morozovska, A. N.},
abstractNote = {Piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) contrast in transversally isotropic material corresponding to the case of c{sup +}-c{sup -} domains in tetragonal ferroelectrics is analyzed using Green's function theory by Felten et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 96, 563 (2004)]. A simplified expression for PFM signal as a linear combination of relevant piezoelectric constant is obtained. This analysis is extended to piezoelectric material of arbitrary symmetry with weak elastic and dielectric anisotropies. These results provide a framework for interpretation of PFM signals for systems with unknown or poorly known local elastic and dielectric properties, including nanocrystalline materials, ferroelectric polymers, and biopolymers.},
doi = {10.1063/1.2206992},
journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
number = 23,
volume = 88,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2006},
month = {Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2006}
}
  • The application of ferroelectric materials for electronic devices necessitates the quantitative study of local switching behavior, including imprint, coercive bias, remanent and saturation responses, and work of switching. Here we introduce switching spectroscopy piezoresponse force microscopy as a tool for real-space imaging of switching properties on the nanoscale. The hysteresis curves, acquired at each point in the image, are analyzed in the thermodynamic and kinetic limits. We expect that this approach will further understanding of the relationships between material microstructure and polarization switching phenomena on the nanoscale, and provide a quantitative tool for ferroelectric-based device characterization.
  • High-resolution imaging of ferroelectric materials using piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) is demonstrated in an aqueous environment. The elimination of both long-range electrostatic forces and capillary interactions results in a localization of the ac field to the tip-surface junction and allows the tip-surface contact area to be controlled. This approach results in spatial resolutions approaching the limit of the intrinsic domain-wall width. Imaging at frequencies corresponding to high-order cantilever resonances minimizes the viscous damping and added mass effects on cantilever dynamics and allows sensitivities comparable to ambient conditions. PFM in liquids will provide novel opportunities for high-resolution studies of ferroelectric materials,more » imaging of soft polymer materials, and imaging of biological systems in physiological environments on, ultimately, the molecular level.« less
  • The implementation of contact mode Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) utilizes the electrostatic interactions between tip and sample when the tip and sample are in contact with each other. Surprisingly, the electrostatic forces in contact are large enough to be measured even with tips as stiff as 4.5 N/m. As for traditional non-contact KPFM, the signal depends strongly on electrical properties of the sample, such as the dielectric constant, and the tip-properties, such as the stiffness. Since the tip is in contact with the sample, bias-induced changes in the junction potential between tip and sample can be measured with highermore » lateral and temporal resolution compared to traditional non-contact KPFM. Significant and reproducible variations of tip-surface capacitance are observed and attributed to surface electrochemical phenomena. Lastly, observations of significant surface charge states at zero bias and strong hysteretic electromechanical responses at non-ferroelectric surface have significant implications for fields such as triboelectricity and piezoresponse force microscopy.« less