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Title: Radioanalytical techniques applied to environmental chemistry: A two case study

Collection of atmospheric aerosol began at Mauna Loa Observatory in February of 1979. A sector controller was installed in May of 1980. Weekly samples were collected. One half of the particle filters were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for elemental quantitation and the other half was analyzed by ion chromatography (IC) for sulfate. Sampling was later modified to include four base treated filters sequentially. One half of the particle filter was still analyzed by INAA and one quarter was analyzed by IC for anions of chloride, nitrate and sulfate. One half of the four base treated filters was also analyzed by IC. This yields a twelve year data record of weekly elemental aerosol concentrations. The most dominant source of trace metals to the 3400 m MLO site is crustal material. The large dust storms in the Chinese deserts loft immense amounts of crustal material into the troposphere every year. Other sources for aerosol particles in the free troposphere are marine and anthropogenic. Anthropogenic sources tend to contribute less than marine sources overall. One pollution episode in 1989 perturbed the vanadium budget by three orders of magnitude. Acidic gaseous nitrogen species and particulate nitrate both follow a clear seasonalmore » trend, which is not highly correlated to the Asian dust episodes. Acidic gaseous chloride and particulate chloride together yield a marine enrichment factor near one, implying that the source for the gaseous chloride is sea salt, which has reacted with the H[sub 2]SO[sub 2] in atmosphere to release HCl gas. Most of the sulfate found exists as a particle rather than in an acidic gaseous sulfur species. First prompt gamma-ray spectroscopy is discussed. A preliminary study of sewage sludge was done at the Los Alamos National Lab.'s PGRS system. The results are presented with projected detection limits of various elements relative to hydrogen.« less
Authors:
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
6977471
Resource Type:
Miscellaneous
Resource Relation:
Other Information: Thesis (Ph.D.)
Publisher:
Seattle, WA (United States); Univ. of Washington
Research Org:
Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; AEROSOLS; AIR POLLUTION MONITORING; ION EXCHANGE CHROMATOGRAPHY; NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS; SEWAGE SLUDGE; GAMMA SPECTRA; TROPOSPHERE; ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY; CHLORIDES; NITRATES; SAMPLING; SEASONAL VARIATIONS; SULFATES; ACTIVATION ANALYSIS; BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS; BIOLOGICAL WASTES; CHEMICAL ANALYSIS; CHEMISTRY; CHLORINE COMPOUNDS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; COLLOIDS; DISPERSIONS; EARTH ATMOSPHERE; HALIDES; HALOGEN COMPOUNDS; MATERIALS; MONITORING; NITROGEN COMPOUNDS; OXYGEN COMPOUNDS; SEPARATION PROCESSES; SEWAGE; SLUDGES; SOLS; SPECTRA; SULFUR COMPOUNDS; VARIATIONS; WASTES 540120* -- Environment, Atmospheric-- Chemicals Monitoring & Transport-- (1990-); 540330 -- Environment, Aquatic-- Radioactive Materials Monitoring & Transport-- (1990-)