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Title: SHOCK BREAKOUT AND EARLY LIGHT CURVES OF TYPE II-P SUPERNOVAE OBSERVED WITH KEPLER

We discovered two transient events in the Kepler field with light curves that strongly suggest they are type II-P supernovae (SNe II-P). Using the fast cadence of the Kepler observations we precisely estimate the rise time to maximum for KSN2011a and KSN2011d as 10.5 ± 0.4 and 13.3 ± 0.4 rest-frame days, respectively. Based on fits to idealized analytic models, we find the progenitor radius of KSN2011a (280 ± 20 R{sub ⊙}) to be significantly smaller than that for KSN2011d (490 ± 20 R{sub ⊙}), but both have similar explosion energies of 2.0 ± 0.3 × 10{sup 51} erg. The rising light curve of KSN2011d is an excellent match to that predicted by simple models of exploding red supergiants (RSG). However, the early rise of KSN2011a is faster than the models predict, possibly due to the supernova shock wave moving into pre-existing wind or mass-loss from the RSG. A mass-loss rate of 10{sup −4}M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} from the RSG can explain the fast rise without impacting the optical flux at maximum light or the shape of the post-maximum light curve. No shock breakout emission is seen in KSN2011a, but this is likely due to the circumstellar interaction suspected in the fast rising light curve. The early light curve of KSN2011d does showmore » excess emission consistent with model predictions of a shock breakout. This is the first optical detection of a shock breakout from a SNe II-P.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ; ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [6]
  1. Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN, 46556-5670 (United States)
  2. The Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Mount Stromlo Observatory, via Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia)
  3. Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)
  4. Astronomy Department, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States)
  5. Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States)
  6. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22518578
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal; Journal Volume: 820; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; DETECTION; DIAGRAMS; EMISSION; MASS TRANSFER; PULSE RISE TIME; RED GIANT STARS; SHOCK WAVES; STELLAR WINDS; SUPERNOVAE; TRANSIENTS; VISIBLE RADIATION