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Title: Air-kerma strength determination of a new directional {sup 103}Pd source

Purpose: A new directional {sup 103}Pd planar source array called a CivaSheetâ„¢ has been developed by CivaTech Oncology, Inc., for potential use in low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy treatments. The array consists of multiple individual polymer capsules called CivaDots, containing {sup 103}Pd and a gold shield that attenuates the radiation on one side, thus defining a hot and cold side. This novel source requires new methods to establish a source strength metric. The presence of gold material in such close proximity to the active {sup 103}Pd region causes the source spectrum to be significantly different than the energy spectra of seeds normally used in LDR brachytherapy treatments. In this investigation, the authors perform air-kerma strength (S{sub K}) measurements, develop new correction factors for these measurements based on an experimentally verified energy spectrum, and test the robustness of transferring S{sub K} to a well-type ionization chamber. Methods: S{sub K} measurements were performed with the variable-aperture free-air chamber (VAFAC) at the University of Wisconsin Medical Radiation Research Center. Subsequent measurements were then performed in a well-type ionization chamber. To realize the quantity S{sub K} from a directional source with gold material present, new methods and correction factors were considered. Updated correction factors were calculatedmore » using the MCNP 6 Monte Carlo code in order to determine S{sub K} with the presence of gold fluorescent energy lines. In addition to S{sub K} measurements, a low-energy high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector was used to experimentally verify the calculated spectrum, a sodium iodide (NaI) scintillating counter was used to verify the azimuthal and polar anisotropy, and a well-type ionization chamber was used to test the feasibility of disseminating S{sub K} values for a directional source within a cylindrically symmetric measurement volume. Results: The UW VAFAC was successfully used to measure the S{sub K} of four CivaDots with reproducibilities within 0.3%. Monte Carlo methods were used to calculate the UW VAFAC correction factors and the calculated spectrum emitted from a CivaDot was experimentally verified with HPGe detector measurements. The well-type ionization chamber showed minimal variation in response (<1.5%) as a function of source positioning angle, indicating that an American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Accredited Dosimetry Calibration Laboratory calibrated well chamber would be a suitable device to transfer an S{sub K}-based calibration to a clinical user. S{sub K} per well-chamber ionization current ratios were consistent among the four dots measured. Additionally, the measurements and predictions of anisotropy show uniform emission within the solid angle of the VAFAC, which demonstrates the robustness of the S{sub K} measurement approach. Conclusions: This characterization of a new {sup 103}Pd directional brachytherapy source helps to establish calibration methods that could ultimately be used in the well-established AAPM Task Group 43 formalism. Monte Carlo methods accurately predict the changes in the energy spectrum caused by the fluorescent x-rays produced in the gold shield.« less
Authors:
; ; ;  [1]
  1. Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22482442
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 42; Journal Issue: 12; Other Information: (c) 2015 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
07 ISOTOPES AND RADIATION SOURCES; 60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; BRACHYTHERAPY; CALIBRATION; CORRECTIONS; CYLINDRICAL CONFIGURATION; DOSE RATES; DOSIMETRY; DRUGS; ENERGY SPECTRA; FLUORESCENCE; GERMANIUM; HIGH-PURITY GE DETECTORS; IMPURITIES; IONIZATION CHAMBERS; KERMA; MONTE CARLO METHOD; PALLADIUM 103; POLYMERS; SODIUM IODIDES