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Title: Hemizygosity of transsulfuration genes confers increased vulnerability against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice

The key mechanism for acetaminophen hepatotoxicity is cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent formation of N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine, a potent electrophile that forms protein adducts. Previous studies revealed the fundamental role of glutathione, which binds to and detoxifies N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine. Glutathione is synthesized from cysteine in the liver, and N-acetylcysteine is used as a sole antidote for acetaminophen poisoning. Here, we evaluated the potential roles of transsulfuration enzymes essential for cysteine biosynthesis, cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine γ-lyase (CTH), in acetaminophen hepatotoxicity using hemizygous (Cbs{sup +/−} or Cth{sup +/−}) and homozygous (Cth{sup −/−}) knockout mice. At 4 h after intraperitoneal acetaminophen injection, serum alanine aminotransferase levels were highly elevated in Cth{sup −/−} mice at 150 mg/kg dose, and also in Cbs{sup +/−} or Cth{sup +/−} mice at 250 mg/kg dose, which was associated with characteristic centrilobular hepatocyte oncosis. Hepatic glutathione was depleted while serum malondialdehyde accumulated in acetaminophen-injected Cth{sup −/−} mice but not wild-type mice, although glutamate–cysteine ligase (composed of catalytic [GCLC] and modifier [GCLM] subunits) became more activated in the livers of Cth{sup −/−} mice with lower K{sub m} values for Cys and Glu. Proteome analysis using fluorescent two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis revealed 47 differentially expressed proteins after injection of 150 mg acetaminophen/kgmore » into Cth{sup −/−} mice; the profiles were similar to 1000 mg acetaminophen/kg-treated wild-type mice. The prevalence of Cbs or Cth hemizygosity is estimated to be 1:200–300 population; therefore, the deletion or polymorphism of either transsulfuration gene may underlie idiosyncratic acetaminophen vulnerability along with the differences in Cyp, Gclc, and Gclm gene activities. - Highlights: • Cbs{sup +/−}, Cth{sup +/−}, and especially Cth{sup −/−} mice were susceptible to APAP hepatic injury. • Hepatic glutathione became rapidly depleted upon APAP injection in Cth{sup −/−} mice. • Hepatic glutamate–cysteine ligase was activated by APAP injection and CTH deletion. • 2D DIGE identified 47 differentially expressed hepatic proteins by APAP injection. • Both transsulfuration enzymes are essential for protection against APAP injury.« less
Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [1]
  1. Department of Biochemistry, Keio University School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo 105-8512 (Japan)
  2. Environmental Biology Laboratory, School of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575 (Japan)
  3. Jobu Hospital for Respiratory Diseases, Maebashi 371-0048 (Japan)
  4. Department of Immunology, Akita University Graduate School of Medicine, Akita 010-8543 (Japan)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22465682
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology; Journal Volume: 282; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2014 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; ADDUCTS; ALANINES; BIOSYNTHESIS; CYSTEINE; ELECTROPHORESIS; FLUORESCENCE; GELS; GENES; GLUTATHIONE; GUANINE; INJECTION; INJURIES; LIGASES; LIVER; MICE; POISONING; SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE; TWO-DIMENSIONAL CALCULATIONS; VULNERABILITY