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Title: Tumor Radiation Therapy Creates Therapeutic Vaccine Responses to the Colorectal Cancer Antigen GUCY2C

Purpose: Radiation therapy (RT) is thought to produce clinical responses in cancer patients, not only through direct toxicity to cancer cells and supporting tumor stroma cells, but also through activation of immunologic effectors. More recently, RT has potentiated the local and systemic effects of cancer immunotherapy (IT). However, combination regimens that maximize immunologic and clinical efficacy remain undefined. Methods and Materials: We evaluated the impact of local RT on adenoviral-mediated vaccination against the colorectal cancer antigen GUCY2C (Ad5-GUCY2C) in a murine subcutaneous tumor model using mouse CT26 colon cancer cells (CT26-GUCY2C). Immune responses were assessed by ELISpot, and clinical responses were assessed by tumor size and incidence. Results: The specific sequence of tumor-directed RT preceding Ad5-GUCY2C IT transformed inactive therapeutic Ad5-GUCY2C vaccination into a curative vaccine. GUCY2C-specific T cell responses were amplified (P<.05), tumor eradication was maximized (P<.01), and tumor volumes were minimized (P<.001) in mice whose tumors were irradiated before, compared with after, Ad5-GUCY2C vaccination. The immunologic and antitumor efficacy of Ad5-GUCY2C was amplified comparably by unfractionated (8 Gy × 1), or biologically equivalent doses of fractionated (3.5 Gy × 3), RT. The antitumor effects of sequential RT and IT (RT-IT) depended on expression of GUCY2C by tumor cellsmore » and the adenoviral vaccine vector, and tumor volumes were inversely related to the magnitude of GUCY2C-specific T cell responses. Moreover, mice cured of CT26-GUCY2C tumors by RT-IT showed long-lasting antigen-dependent protection, resisting tumors formed by GUCY2C-expressing 4T1 breast cancer cells inoculated 50 days after CT26 cells. Conclusions: Optimal sequencing of RT and IT amplifies antigen-specific local and systemic immune responses, revealing novel acute and long-term therapeutic antitumor protection. These observations underscore the importance of modality sequence optimization before the initiation of clinical trials of RT and IT to maximize immune and antitumor responses.« less
Authors:
 [1] ; ; ; ;  [2] ;  [2]
  1. Department of Radiation Oncology, Kimmel Cancer Center, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)
  2. Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22416537
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics; Journal Volume: 88; Journal Issue: 5; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2014 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; ANTIGENS; CLINICAL TRIALS; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; DOSE EQUIVALENTS; IMMUNOTHERAPY; LARGE INTESTINE; MAMMARY GLANDS; MICE; NEOPLASMS; RADIOTHERAPY; TOXICITY; TUMOR CELLS; VACCINES