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Title: Review of the highlights of X-ray studies of liquid metal surfaces

X-ray studies of the interface between liquid metals and their coexisting vapor are reviewed. After a brief discussion of the few elemental liquid metals for which the surface Debye-Waller effect is sufficiently weak to allow measurement, this paper will go on to discuss the various types of surface phenomena that have been observed for liquid metal alloys. These include surface adsorption, surface freezing, surface aggregation of nm size atomic clusters, and surface chemistry that leads to new 3D crystalline phases.
Authors:
 [1]
  1. Department of Physics and the School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22402747
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Applied Physics; Journal Volume: 116; Journal Issue: 22; Other Information: (c) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; ADSORPTION; AGGLOMERATION; ALLOYS; ATOMIC CLUSTERS; CHEMISTRY; DEBYE-WALLER FACTOR; FREEZING; INTERFACES; LIQUID METALS; SURFACES; VAPORS; X RADIATION