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Title: Superflare occurrence and energies on G-, K-, and M-type dwarfs

Kepler data from G-, K-, and M-type stars are used to study conditions that lead to superflares with energies above 10{sup 34} erg. From the 117,661 stars included, 380 show superflares with a total of 1690 such events. We study whether parameters, like effective temperature or rotation rate, have any effect on the superflare occurrence rate or energy. With increasing effective temperature we observe a decrease in the superflare rate, which is analogous to the previous findings of a decrease in dynamo activity with increasing effective temperature. For slowly rotating stars, we find a quadratic increase of the mean occurrence rate with the rotation rate up to a critical point, after which the rate decreases linearly. Motivated by standard dynamo theory, we study the behavior of the relative starspot coverage, approximated as the relative brightness variation. For faster rotating stars, an increased fraction of stars shows higher spot coverage, which leads to higher superflare rates. A turbulent dynamo is used to study the dependence of the Ohmic dissipation as a proxy of the flare energy on the differential rotation or shear rate. The resulting statistics of the dissipation energy as a function of dynamo number is similar to the observedmore » flare statistics as a function of the inverse Rossby number and shows similarly strong fluctuations. This supports the idea that superflares might well be possible for solar-type G stars.« less
Authors:
 [1] ; ; ;  [2] ;  [3]
  1. Division of Mathematics, University of Dundee, Dundee, DD1 4HN (United Kingdom)
  2. Kwasan and Hida Observatory, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto 607-8471 (Japan)
  3. Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22365169
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal; Journal Volume: 792; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; APPROXIMATIONS; BRIGHTNESS; DWARF STARS; FLUCTUATIONS; ROTATION; STARS; STELLAR FLARES