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Title: SIMULATION OF ENERGETIC NEUTRAL ATOMS FROM SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLES

Energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) provide the only way to observe the acceleration site of coronal-mass-ejection-driven (CME-driven) shock-accelerated solar energetic particles (SEPs). In gradual SEP events, energetic protons can charge exchange with the ambient solar wind or interstellar neutrals to become ENAs. Assuming a CME-driven shock with a constant speed of 1800 km s{sup –1} and compression ratio of 3.5, propagating from 1.5 to 40 R{sub S} , we calculate the accelerated SEPs at 5-5000 keV and the resulting ENAs via various charge-exchange interactions. Taking into account the ENA losses in the interplanetary medium, we obtain the flux-time profiles of these solar ENAs reaching 1 AU. We find that the arriving ENAs at energies above ∼100 keV show a sharply peaked flux-time profile, mainly originating from the shock source below 5 R{sub S} , whereas the ENAs below ∼20 keV have a flat-top time profile, mostly originating from the source beyond 10 R{sub S} . Assuming the accelerated protons are effectively trapped downstream of the shock, we can reproduce the STEREO ENA fluence observations at ∼2-5 MeV/nucleon. We also estimate the flux of ENAs coming from the charge exchange of energetic storm protons, accelerated by the fast CME-driven shock near 1 AU, with interstellarmore » hydrogen and helium. Our results suggest that appropriate instrumentation would be able to detect ENAs from SEPs and to even make ENA images of SEPs at energies above ∼10-20 keV.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [5]
  1. Institute of Space Physics and Applied Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)
  2. Department of Space Science and CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)
  3. Solar Physics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20770 (United States)
  4. Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States)
  5. Institut fuer Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, University of Kiel, Leibnizstrasse 11, D-24118 Kiel (Germany)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22364955
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal Letters; Journal Volume: 793; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; ACCELERATION; ATOMS; CHARGE EXCHANGE; COMPRESSION RATIO; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; HELIUM; HYDROGEN; KEV RANGE; MASS; MEV RANGE; SOLAR CORONA; SOLAR WIND; SUN; TRAPPING