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Title: Very low density planets around Kepler-51 revealed with transit timing variations and an anomaly similar to a planet-planet eclipse event

We present an analysis of the transit timing variations (TTVs) in the multi-transiting planetary system around Kepler-51 (KOI-620). This system consists of two confirmed transiting planets, Kepler-51b (P {sub b} = 45.2 days) and Kepler-51c (P {sub c} = 85.3 days), and one transiting planet candidate KOI-620.02 (P {sub 02} = 130.2 days), which lie close to a 1: 2: 3 resonance chain. Our analysis shows that their TTVs are consistently explained by the three-planet model, and constrains their masses as M{sub b}=2.1{sub −0.8}{sup +1.5} M{sub ⊕} (Kepler-51b), M {sub c} = 4.0 ± 0.4 M {sub ⊕} (Kepler-51c), and M {sub 02} = 7.6 ± 1.1 M {sub ⊕} (KOI-620.02), thus confirming KOI-620.02 as a planet in this system. The masses inferred from the TTVs are rather small compared to the planetary radii based on the stellar density and planet-to-star radius ratios determined from the transit light curves. Combining these estimates, we find that all three planets in this system have densities among the lowest determined, ρ {sub p} ≲ 0.05 g cm{sup –3}. With this feature, the Kepler-51 system serves as another example of low-density compact multi-transiting planetary systems. We also identify a curious feature in the archivedmore » Kepler light curve during the double transit of Kepler-51b and KOI-620.02, which could be explained by their overlapping on the stellar disk (a planet-planet eclipse). If this is really the case, the sky-plane inclination of KOI-620.02's orbit relative to that of Kepler-51b is given by ΔΩ=−25.3{sub −6.8}{sup +6.2} deg, implying significant misalignment of their orbital planes. This interpretation, however, seems unlikely because such an event that is consistent with all of the observations is found to be exceedingly rare.« less
Authors:
 [1]
  1. Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22351609
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal; Journal Volume: 783; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; DENSITY; ECLIPSE; INCLINATION; MASS; ORBITS; PLANETS; RESONANCE; SATELLITES; STARS; VISIBLE RADIATION