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Title: The onset of spiral structure in the universe

The onset of spiral structure in galaxies appears to occur between redshifts 1.4 and 1.8 when disks have developed a cool stellar component, rotation dominates over turbulent motions in the gas, and massive clumps become less frequent. During the transition from clumpy to spiral disks, two unusual types of spirals are found in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field that are massive, clumpy, and irregular like their predecessor clumpy disks, yet spiral-like or sheared like their descendants. One type is 'woolly' with massive clumpy arms all over the disk and is brighter than other disk galaxies at the same redshift, while another type has irregular multiple arms with high pitch angles, star formation knots, and no inner symmetry like today's multiple-arm galaxies. The common types of spirals seen locally are also present in a redshift range around z ∼ 1, namely grand design with two symmetric arms, multiple arm with symmetry in the inner parts and several long, thin arms in the outer parts, and flocculent, with short, irregular, and patchy arms that are mostly from star formation. Normal multiple-arm galaxies are found only closer than z ∼ 0.6 in the Ultra Deep Field. Grand design galaxies extend furthest to zmore » ∼ 1.8, presumably because interactions can drive a two-arm spiral in a disk that would otherwise have a more irregular structure. The difference between these types is understandable in terms of the usual stability parameters for gas and stars, and the ratio of the velocity dispersion to rotation speed.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2]
  1. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, NY 12604 (United States)
  2. IBM Research Division, T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Hts., NY 10598 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22348191
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal; Journal Volume: 781; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; DISPERSIONS; GALAXIES; INTERACTIONS; PHOTOMETRY; RED SHIFT; ROTATION; STABILITY; STARS; SYMMETRY; UNIVERSE; VELOCITY