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Title: THE ATACAMA COSMOLOGY TELESCOPE: BEAM MEASUREMENTS AND THE MICROWAVE BRIGHTNESS TEMPERATURES OF URANUS AND SATURN

We describe the measurement of the beam profiles and window functions for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT), which operated from 2007 to 2010 with kilopixel bolometer arrays centered at 148, 218, and 277 GHz. Maps of Saturn are used to measure the beam shape in each array and for each season of observations. Radial profiles are transformed to Fourier space in a way that preserves the spatial correlations in the beam uncertainty to derive window functions relevant for angular power spectrum analysis. Several corrections are applied to the resulting beam transforms, including an empirical correction measured from the final cosmic microwave background (CMB) survey maps to account for the effects of mild pointing variation and alignment errors. Observations of Uranus made regularly throughout each observing season are used to measure the effects of atmospheric opacity and to monitor deviations in telescope focus over the season. Using the WMAP-based calibration of the ACT maps to the CMB blackbody, we obtain precise measurements of the brightness temperatures of the Uranus and Saturn disks at effective frequencies of 149 and 219 GHz. For Uranus we obtain thermodynamic brightness temperatures T{sub U}{sup 149}= 106.7 ± 2.2 K and T{sub U}{sup 219}= 100.1 ± 3.1more » K. For Saturn, we model the effects of the ring opacity and emission using a simple model and obtain resulting (unobscured) disk temperatures of T{sub S}{sup 149}= 137.3 ± 3.2 K and T{sub S}{sup 219}= 137.3 ± 4.7 K.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ; ; ; ;  [3] ;  [4] ; ; ;  [5] ;  [6] ; ;  [7] ; ;  [8] ; ;  [9] ;  [10] ;  [11] ;  [12] more »; « less
  1. Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)
  2. Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematics, Statistics, and Computer Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4041 (South Africa)
  3. Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)
  4. High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States)
  5. Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)
  6. Department of Astrophysics, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)
  7. Departamento de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificía Universidad Católica, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile)
  8. NIST Quantum Devices Group, 325 Broadway Mailcode 817.03, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States)
  9. Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-2686 (United States)
  10. Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada)
  11. Joseph Henry Laboratories of Physics, Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)
  12. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Haverford College, Haverford, PA 19041 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22273265
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series; Journal Volume: 209; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; ASTRONOMY; ASTROPHYSICS; BOLOMETERS; BRIGHTNESS; CALIBRATION; CORRECTIONS; CORRELATIONS; COSMOLOGY; GHZ RANGE; MONITORS; OPACITY; RELICT RADIATION; SATELLITES; SATURN PLANET; TELESCOPES; URANUS PLANET