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Title: Correlation of Clinical and Dosimetric Factors With Adverse Pulmonary Outcomes in Children After Lung Irradiation

Purpose: To identify the incidence and the risk factors for pulmonary toxicity in children treated for cancer with contemporary lung irradiation. Methods and Materials: We analyzed clinical features, radiographic findings, pulmonary function tests, and dosimetric parameters of children receiving irradiation to the lung fields over a 10-year period. Results: We identified 109 patients (75 male patients). The median age at irradiation was 13.8 years (range, 0.04-20.9 years). The median follow-up period was 3.4 years. The median prescribed radiation dose was 21 Gy (range, 0.4-64.8 Gy). Pulmonary toxic chemotherapy included bleomycin in 58.7% of patients and cyclophosphamide in 83.5%. The following pulmonary outcomes were identified and the 5-year cumulative incidence after irradiation was determined: pneumonitis, 6%; chronic cough, 10%; pneumonia, 35%; dyspnea, 11%; supplemental oxygen requirement, 2%; radiographic interstitial lung disease, 40%; and chest wall deformity, 12%. One patient died of progressive respiratory failure. Post-irradiation pulmonary function tests available from 44 patients showed evidence of obstructive lung disease (25%), restrictive disease (11%), hyperinflation (32%), and abnormal diffusion capacity (12%). Thoracic surgery, bleomycin, age, mean lung irradiation dose (MLD), maximum lung dose, prescribed dose, and dosimetric parameters between V{sub 22} (volume of lung exposed to a radiation dose ≥22 Gy) and V{submore » 30} (volume of lung exposed to a radiation dose ≥30 Gy) were significant for the development of adverse pulmonary outcomes on univariate analysis. MLD, maximum lung dose, and V{sub dose} (percentage of volume of lung receiving the threshold dose or greater) were highly correlated. On multivariate analysis, MLD was the sole significant predictor of adverse pulmonary outcome (P=.01). Conclusions: Significant pulmonary dysfunction occurs in children receiving lung irradiation by contemporary techniques. MLD rather than prescribed dose should be used to perform risk stratification of patients receiving lung irradiation.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [4] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [5] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [6] ;  [2] ;
  1. Division of Hematology/Oncology, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States)
  2. (United States)
  3. Department of Pulmonology, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States)
  4. Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California (United States)
  5. Department of Radiology, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States)
  6. Department of Pediatrics, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22267840
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics; Journal Volume: 86; Journal Issue: 5; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2013 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; BLEOMYCIN; CHEMOTHERAPY; CHEST; CHILDREN; CORRELATIONS; ENDOXAN; HEALTH HAZARDS; IRRADIATION; LUNGS; MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS; NEOPLASMS; PATIENTS; PNEUMONIA; SURGERY; THRESHOLD DOSE; TOXICITY