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Title: Electroluminescence efficiencies of erbium in silicon-based hosts

We report on room-temperature 1.5 μm electroluminescence from trivalent erbium (Er{sup 3+}) ions embedded in three different CMOS-compatible silicon-based hosts: SiO{sub 2}, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, and SiN{sub x}. We show that although the insertion of either nitrogen or excess silicon helps enhance electrical conduction and reduce the onset voltage for electroluminescence, it drastically decreases the external quantum efficiency of Er{sup 3+} ions from 2% in SiO{sub 2} to 0.001% and 0.0004% in SiN{sub x} and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, respectively. Furthermore, we present strong evidence that hot carrier injection is significantly more efficient than defect-assisted conduction for the electrical excitation of Er{sup 3+} ions. These results suggest strategies to optimize the engineering of on-chip electrically excited silicon-based nanophotonic light sources.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ; ; ;  [3] ; ;  [4] ;  [2] ; ;  [1]
  1. Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la Photonique (CIMAP), UMR 6252 CNRS/CEA/Ensicaen/UCBN, Caen 14050 (France)
  2. (United States)
  3. MIND-IN2UB, Department Electrònica, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, Barcelona 08028 (Spain)
  4. School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22254112
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Applied Physics Letters; Journal Volume: 103; Journal Issue: 19; Other Information: (c) 2013 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; ELECTROLUMINESCENCE; ERBIUM IONS; QUANTUM EFFICIENCY; SILICON OXIDES