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Title: Bioavailability-Based In Situ Remediation To Meet Future Lead (Pb) Standards in Urban Soils and Gardens

Recently the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention lowered the blood Pb reference value to 5 μg/dL. The lower reference value combined with increased repurposing of postindustrial lands are heightening concerns and driving interest in reducing soil Pb exposures. As a result, regulatory decision makers may lower residential soil screening levels (SSLs), used in setting Pb cleanup levels, to levels that may be difficult to achieve, especially in urban areas. This study discusses challenges in remediation and bioavailability assessments of Pb in urban soils in the context of lower SSLs and identifies research needs to better address those challenges. Although in situ remediation with phosphate amendments is a viable option, the scope of the problem and conditions in urban settings may necessitate that SSLs be based on bioavailable rather than total Pb concentrations. However, variability in soil composition can influence bioavailability testing and soil amendment effectiveness. Finally, more data are urgently needed to better understand this variability and increase confidence in using these approaches in risk-based decision making, particularly in urban areas.
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [6] ;  [7] ;  [8] ;  [9]
  1. National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Hazardous Substances Research Branch
  2. MDB, Inc., Durham, NC (United States)
  3. Univ. of Peradeniya (Sri Lanka). Dept. of Soil Science
  4. The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). School of Environment and Natural Resources
  5. Brooklyn College of The City Univ. of New York, NY (United States)
  6. Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). Dept. of Agronomy
  7. US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 2, New York, NY (United States)
  8. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Biosciences Division
  9. US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Cincinnati, OH (United States). National Risk Management Research Lab.
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-00OR22725; 14-296-J
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Environmental Science and Technology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 49; Journal Issue: 15; Journal ID: ISSN 0013-936X
American Chemical Society (ACS)
Research Org:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC); National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) (United States); Dept. of Defense (United States); USEPA; Kansas Agricultural Experimental Station (United States)
Country of Publication:
United States