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Title: The Power of Integrators, Financiers, and Insurers to Reduce Proliferation Risks: Nuclear Dual-Use Goods

Globalization of manufacturing supply chains has changed the nature of nuclear proliferation. Before 1991, nonproliferation efforts focused almost exclusively on limiting the spread of materials and equipment specifically designed for nuclear use -- reactors, centrifuges, and fissile material. Dual-use items, those items with both nuclear and non-nuclear applications, were not closely scrutinized or controlled. However, in 1991 the international community discovered that Iraq had developed a fairly sophisticated nuclear weapons program by importing dual-use items; this discovery spurred the international community to increase controls on dual-use technologies. Despite these international efforts, dual-use items are still a challenge for those seeking to limit proliferation.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [1]
  1. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
1226417
Report Number(s):
PNNL--24288
NN4012030; TRN: US1500897
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Research Org:
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (US)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
98 NUCLEAR DISARMAMENT, SAFEGUARDS, AND PHYSICAL PROTECTION; PROLIFERATION; NUCLEAR WEAPONS; HAZARDS; DUAL-USE TECHNOLOGIES; INTERNATIONAL CONTROL; EQUIPMENT; GLOBALIZATION; MANAGEMENT Proliferation Risks, Integrators