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Title: Unfolding quantum computer readout noise

Abstract

In the current era of noisy intermediate-scale quantum computers, noisy qubits can result in biased results for early quantum algorithm applications. This is a significant challenge for interpreting results from quantum computer simulations for quantum chemistry, nuclear physics, high energy physics (HEP), and other emerging scientific applications. An important class of qubit errors are readout errors. The most basic method to correct readout errors is matrix inversion, using a response matrix built from simple operations to probe the rate of transitions from known initial quantum states to readout outcomes. One challenge with inverting matrices with large off-diagonal components is that the results are sensitive to statistical fluctuations. This challenge is familiar to HEP, where prior-independent regularized matrix inversion techniques (“unfolding”) have been developed for years to correct for acceptance and detector effects, when performing differential cross section measurements. We study one such method, known as iterative Bayesian unfolding, as a potential tool for correcting readout errors from universal gate-based quantum computers. This method is shown to avoid pathologies from commonly used matrix inversion and least squares methods.

Authors:
ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR); National Science Foundation (NSF)
OSTI Identifier:
1665912
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1572866
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231; AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
npj Quantum Information
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: npj Quantum Information Journal Volume: 6 Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2056-6387
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United Kingdom
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS

Citation Formats

Nachman, Benjamin, Urbanek, Miroslav, de Jong, Wibe A., and Bauer, Christian W. Unfolding quantum computer readout noise. United Kingdom: N. p., 2020. Web. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41534-020-00309-7.
Nachman, Benjamin, Urbanek, Miroslav, de Jong, Wibe A., & Bauer, Christian W. Unfolding quantum computer readout noise. United Kingdom. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41534-020-00309-7
Nachman, Benjamin, Urbanek, Miroslav, de Jong, Wibe A., and Bauer, Christian W. Fri . "Unfolding quantum computer readout noise". United Kingdom. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41534-020-00309-7.
@article{osti_1665912,
title = {Unfolding quantum computer readout noise},
author = {Nachman, Benjamin and Urbanek, Miroslav and de Jong, Wibe A. and Bauer, Christian W.},
abstractNote = {In the current era of noisy intermediate-scale quantum computers, noisy qubits can result in biased results for early quantum algorithm applications. This is a significant challenge for interpreting results from quantum computer simulations for quantum chemistry, nuclear physics, high energy physics (HEP), and other emerging scientific applications. An important class of qubit errors are readout errors. The most basic method to correct readout errors is matrix inversion, using a response matrix built from simple operations to probe the rate of transitions from known initial quantum states to readout outcomes. One challenge with inverting matrices with large off-diagonal components is that the results are sensitive to statistical fluctuations. This challenge is familiar to HEP, where prior-independent regularized matrix inversion techniques (“unfolding”) have been developed for years to correct for acceptance and detector effects, when performing differential cross section measurements. We study one such method, known as iterative Bayesian unfolding, as a potential tool for correcting readout errors from universal gate-based quantum computers. This method is shown to avoid pathologies from commonly used matrix inversion and least squares methods.},
doi = {10.1038/s41534-020-00309-7},
journal = {npj Quantum Information},
number = 1,
volume = 6,
place = {United Kingdom},
year = {2020},
month = {9}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
https://doi.org/10.1038/s41534-020-00309-7

Figures / Tables:

FIG. 1 FIG. 1: A schematic diagram illustrating the connection between binned differential cross section measurements in high energy physics (left) an interpreting the output of repeated measurements from quantum computers (right).

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