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Title: Quantifying snow darkening and atmospheric radiative effects of black carbon and dust on the South Asian monsoon and hydrological cycle: experiments using variable-resolution CESM

Abstract

Black carbon (BC) and dust impart significant effects on the South Asian monsoon (SAM), which is responsible for ~80 % of the region's annual precipitation. This study implements a variable-resolution (VR) version of the Community Earth System Model (CESM) to quantify two radiative effects of absorbing BC and dust on the SAM. Specifically, this study focuses on the snow darkening effect (SDE), as well as how these aerosols interact with incoming and outgoing radiation to facilitate an atmospheric response (i.e., aerosol–radiation interactions, ARIs). By running sensitivity experiments, the individual effects of SDE and ARI are quantified, and a theoretical framework is applied to assess these aerosols'impacts on the SAM. It is found that ARIs of absorbing aerosols warm the atmospheric column in a belt coincident with the May–June averaged locationof the subtropical jet, bringing forth anomalous upper-tropospheric(lower-tropospheric) anticyclogenesis (cyclogenesis) and divergence(convergence). This anomalous arrangement in the mass fields brings forth enhanced rising vertical motion across South Asia and a stronger westerly low-level jet, the latter of which furnishes the Indian subcontinent with enhanced Arabian Gulf moisture. Precipitation increases of 2 mm d–1 or more (a 60 % increase in June) result across much of northern India from May through August,more » with larger anomalies (+5 to +10 mm d–1) in the western Indian mountains and southern Tibetan Plateau (TP) mountain ranges due to orographic and an abatic enhancement. Across the Tibetan Plateau foothills, SDE by BC aerosols drives large precipitation anomalies of > 6 mm d–1(a 21%–26 % increase in May and June), comparable to ARI of absorbing aerosols from April through August. Runoff changes accompany BC SDE-induced snow changes across Tibet, while runoff changes across India result predominantly from dust ARI. Finally, there are large differences in the simulated SDE between the VR and traditional 1° simulations, the latter of which simulates a much stronger SDE and more effectively modifies the regional circulation.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [3];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [4]
  1. Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)
  2. Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China)
  3. Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)
  4. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE; National Science Foundation of China
OSTI Identifier:
1633534
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-148781
Journal ID: ISSN 1680-7324
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-76RL01830; 41830966
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (Online); Journal Volume: 19; Journal Issue: 18; Journal ID: ISSN 1680-7324
Publisher:
European Geosciences Union
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

Citation Formats

Rahimi, Stefan, Liu, Xiaohong, Wu, Chenglai, Lau, William K., Brown, Hunter, Wu, Mingxuan, and Qian, Yun. Quantifying snow darkening and atmospheric radiative effects of black carbon and dust on the South Asian monsoon and hydrological cycle: experiments using variable-resolution CESM. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-12025-2019.
Rahimi, Stefan, Liu, Xiaohong, Wu, Chenglai, Lau, William K., Brown, Hunter, Wu, Mingxuan, & Qian, Yun. Quantifying snow darkening and atmospheric radiative effects of black carbon and dust on the South Asian monsoon and hydrological cycle: experiments using variable-resolution CESM. United States. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-12025-2019
Rahimi, Stefan, Liu, Xiaohong, Wu, Chenglai, Lau, William K., Brown, Hunter, Wu, Mingxuan, and Qian, Yun. Thu . "Quantifying snow darkening and atmospheric radiative effects of black carbon and dust on the South Asian monsoon and hydrological cycle: experiments using variable-resolution CESM". United States. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-12025-2019. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1633534.
@article{osti_1633534,
title = {Quantifying snow darkening and atmospheric radiative effects of black carbon and dust on the South Asian monsoon and hydrological cycle: experiments using variable-resolution CESM},
author = {Rahimi, Stefan and Liu, Xiaohong and Wu, Chenglai and Lau, William K. and Brown, Hunter and Wu, Mingxuan and Qian, Yun},
abstractNote = {Black carbon (BC) and dust impart significant effects on the South Asian monsoon (SAM), which is responsible for ~80 % of the region's annual precipitation. This study implements a variable-resolution (VR) version of the Community Earth System Model (CESM) to quantify two radiative effects of absorbing BC and dust on the SAM. Specifically, this study focuses on the snow darkening effect (SDE), as well as how these aerosols interact with incoming and outgoing radiation to facilitate an atmospheric response (i.e., aerosol–radiation interactions, ARIs). By running sensitivity experiments, the individual effects of SDE and ARI are quantified, and a theoretical framework is applied to assess these aerosols'impacts on the SAM. It is found that ARIs of absorbing aerosols warm the atmospheric column in a belt coincident with the May–June averaged locationof the subtropical jet, bringing forth anomalous upper-tropospheric(lower-tropospheric) anticyclogenesis (cyclogenesis) and divergence(convergence). This anomalous arrangement in the mass fields brings forth enhanced rising vertical motion across South Asia and a stronger westerly low-level jet, the latter of which furnishes the Indian subcontinent with enhanced Arabian Gulf moisture. Precipitation increases of 2 mm d–1 or more (a 60 % increase in June) result across much of northern India from May through August, with larger anomalies (+5 to +10 mm d–1) in the western Indian mountains and southern Tibetan Plateau (TP) mountain ranges due to orographic and an abatic enhancement. Across the Tibetan Plateau foothills, SDE by BC aerosols drives large precipitation anomalies of > 6 mm d–1(a 21%–26 % increase in May and June), comparable to ARI of absorbing aerosols from April through August. Runoff changes accompany BC SDE-induced snow changes across Tibet, while runoff changes across India result predominantly from dust ARI. Finally, there are large differences in the simulated SDE between the VR and traditional 1° simulations, the latter of which simulates a much stronger SDE and more effectively modifies the regional circulation.},
doi = {10.5194/acp-19-12025-2019},
journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (Online)},
number = 18,
volume = 19,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {9}
}

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