skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Unveiling 3D Morphology of Multiscale Micro-Nanosilver Sintering for Advanced Electronics Manufacturing by Ptychographic X-ray Nanotomography

Abstract

The sintering processing–structure–property relationship of a multiscale silver materials is investigated: microparticles with nanofeatures, particularly on their three-dimensional (3D) morphology. The target application is to replace conventional lead-based solders in advanced electronic manufacturing. Unlike lead-based solders, silver powders are suited to satisfy increasingly demanding mechanical, electrical, and thermal requirements, meanwhile being free of health effect. Sintering the material at a low temperature and without applied pressure are desirable conditions, which results in a preferred use of silver nanoparticles, as nanofeatures have higher driving force to sinter with the decrease in particle size. However, nanosized powders present potential health/environmental effects. To address the trade-off between the benefits and shortcomings of nano-versus microparticles, this work studies a novel multiscale silver paste, namely micron-sized powders with nanosized features. To get quantitative 3D visualization of micro- and nanoscale features, ptychographic X-ray computed nanotomography is applied. The correlations between conditions (thermal aging, pressure, and substrate metallization), mechanical properties, and morphological parameters are established. Finally, using novel 3D X-ray nanoimaging technique, it is demonstrated that one can design multiscale materials while balancing complex demands required in advanced electronics manufacturing and research directions in materials design and characterization.

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [3];  [1];  [4];  [4];  [2];  [5]
  1. Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)
  2. Henkel Corporation, Bridgewater, NJ (United States)
  3. Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland). Swiss Light Source; Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN)
  4. Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland). Swiss Light Source
  5. Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES); Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)
OSTI Identifier:
1607713
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1600580
Report Number(s):
BNL-213754-2020-JAAM
Journal ID: ISSN 1438-1656
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0012704; 200021_152554; 200020_169623
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Advanced Engineering Materials
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 22; Journal Issue: 4; Journal ID: ISSN 1438-1656
Publisher:
Wiley
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; Ptychography; Silver paste; Tomography; Nano-CT; Porous

Citation Formats

Lin, Yu-Chung, Liu, Xiaoyang, Chou, Kang Wei, Tsai, Esther H. R., Zhao, Chonghang, Holler, Mirko, Diaz, Ana, Petrash, Stanislas, and Chen-Wiegart, Yu-chen Karen. Unveiling 3D Morphology of Multiscale Micro-Nanosilver Sintering for Advanced Electronics Manufacturing by Ptychographic X-ray Nanotomography. United States: N. p., 2020. Web. https://doi.org/10.1002/adem.201901250.
Lin, Yu-Chung, Liu, Xiaoyang, Chou, Kang Wei, Tsai, Esther H. R., Zhao, Chonghang, Holler, Mirko, Diaz, Ana, Petrash, Stanislas, & Chen-Wiegart, Yu-chen Karen. Unveiling 3D Morphology of Multiscale Micro-Nanosilver Sintering for Advanced Electronics Manufacturing by Ptychographic X-ray Nanotomography. United States. https://doi.org/10.1002/adem.201901250
Lin, Yu-Chung, Liu, Xiaoyang, Chou, Kang Wei, Tsai, Esther H. R., Zhao, Chonghang, Holler, Mirko, Diaz, Ana, Petrash, Stanislas, and Chen-Wiegart, Yu-chen Karen. Thu . "Unveiling 3D Morphology of Multiscale Micro-Nanosilver Sintering for Advanced Electronics Manufacturing by Ptychographic X-ray Nanotomography". United States. https://doi.org/10.1002/adem.201901250. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1607713.
@article{osti_1607713,
title = {Unveiling 3D Morphology of Multiscale Micro-Nanosilver Sintering for Advanced Electronics Manufacturing by Ptychographic X-ray Nanotomography},
author = {Lin, Yu-Chung and Liu, Xiaoyang and Chou, Kang Wei and Tsai, Esther H. R. and Zhao, Chonghang and Holler, Mirko and Diaz, Ana and Petrash, Stanislas and Chen-Wiegart, Yu-chen Karen},
abstractNote = {The sintering processing–structure–property relationship of a multiscale silver materials is investigated: microparticles with nanofeatures, particularly on their three-dimensional (3D) morphology. The target application is to replace conventional lead-based solders in advanced electronic manufacturing. Unlike lead-based solders, silver powders are suited to satisfy increasingly demanding mechanical, electrical, and thermal requirements, meanwhile being free of health effect. Sintering the material at a low temperature and without applied pressure are desirable conditions, which results in a preferred use of silver nanoparticles, as nanofeatures have higher driving force to sinter with the decrease in particle size. However, nanosized powders present potential health/environmental effects. To address the trade-off between the benefits and shortcomings of nano-versus microparticles, this work studies a novel multiscale silver paste, namely micron-sized powders with nanosized features. To get quantitative 3D visualization of micro- and nanoscale features, ptychographic X-ray computed nanotomography is applied. The correlations between conditions (thermal aging, pressure, and substrate metallization), mechanical properties, and morphological parameters are established. Finally, using novel 3D X-ray nanoimaging technique, it is demonstrated that one can design multiscale materials while balancing complex demands required in advanced electronics manufacturing and research directions in materials design and characterization.},
doi = {10.1002/adem.201901250},
journal = {Advanced Engineering Materials},
number = 4,
volume = 22,
place = {United States},
year = {2020},
month = {2}
}

Works referenced in this record:

Electromigration and Thermomigration in Pb-Free Flip-Chip Solder Joints
journal, June 2010


An instrument for 3D x-ray nano-imaging
journal, July 2012

  • Holler, M.; Raabe, J.; Diaz, A.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 83, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4737624

Quantitative x-ray phase nanotomography
journal, January 2012


The diffusion rates of some metals in copper, silver, and gold
journal, January 1950


Sample Preparation of Energy Materials for X-ray Nanotomography with Micromanipulation
journal, March 2014

  • Chen-Wiegart, Yu-chen Karen; Camino, Fernando E.; Wang, Jun
  • ChemPhysChem, Vol. 15, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201400023

Ageing sintered silver: Relationship between tensile behavior, mechanical properties and the nanoporous structure evolution
journal, July 2016

  • Gadaud, Pascal; Caccuri, Vincenzo; Bertheau, Denis
  • Materials Science and Engineering: A, Vol. 669
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.msea.2016.05.108

Evolution of the nanoporous microstructure of sintered Ag at high temperature using in-situ X-ray nanotomography
journal, September 2018


Study on the Effects of Copper Oxide Growth on the Peel Strength of Copper/Polyimide
journal, May 2008


Thermal fatigue of Ag flake sintering die-attachment for Si/SiC power devices
journal, April 2013

  • Sakamoto, Soichi; Nagao, Shijo; Suganuma, Katsuaki
  • Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, Vol. 24, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1007/s10854-013-1138-x

Effect of Manufacturing Process on Micro-Deformation Behavior of Sintered-Silver Die-Attach Material
journal, December 2016

  • Suzuki, Tomohisa; Terasaki, Takeshi; Kawana, Yuki
  • IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability, Vol. 16, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1109/TDMR.2016.2614510

Carving at the Nanoscale: Sequential Galvanic Exchange and Kirkendall Growth at Room Temperature
journal, December 2011


Mechanical properties of nano-silver joints as die attach materials
journal, February 2012


Ptychographic X-ray computed tomography at the nanoscale
journal, September 2010

  • Dierolf, Martin; Menzel, Andreas; Thibault, Pierre
  • Nature, Vol. 467, Issue 7314
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature09419

Low temperature sintering of Ag nanoparticles for flexible electronics packaging
journal, October 2010

  • Hu, A.; Guo, J. Y.; Alarifi, H.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 97, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3502604

Simplification of Low-Temperature Sintering Nanosilver for Power Electronics Packaging
journal, April 2013


X-ray ptychographic computed tomography at 16 nm isotropic 3D resolution
journal, January 2014

  • Holler, M.; Diaz, A.; Guizar-Sicairos, M.
  • Scientific Reports, Vol. 4, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/srep03857

Self-Diffusion in Silver-Gold Solid Solutions
journal, January 1963


Quantitative characterization of porosity and determination of elastic modulus for sintered micro-silver joints
journal, November 2015


Effect of Gold on the Microstructural Evolution and Integrity of a Sintered Silver Joint
journal, January 2017

  • Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Leonard, Donovan N.; Meyer, Harry M.
  • Journal of Electronic Materials, Vol. 46, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11664-016-5216-8

Are Sintered Silver Joints Ready for Use as Interconnect Material in Microelectronic Packaging?
journal, January 2014


Metal?metal bonding process using Ag metallo-organic nanoparticles
journal, May 2005


Solderable and electroplatable flexible electronic circuit on a porous stretchable elastomer
journal, January 2012

  • Jeong, Gi Seok; Baek, Dong-Hyun; Jung, Ha Chul
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 3, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms1980

Reliability of Ag Sintering for Power Semiconductor Die Attach in High-Temperature Applications
journal, September 2017

  • Yu, Fang; Cui, Jinzi; Zhou, Zhangming
  • IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 32, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1109/TPEL.2016.2631128

Low-Temperature Sintering with Nano-Silver Paste in Die-Attached Interconnection
journal, September 2007


Challenges and Directions in Mobile Device Packaging
journal, January 2014


Activity coefficient and vacancy flux effects on tracer diffusion in silver–gold alloys
journal, May 1971

  • Greene, M. H.; Batra, A. P.; Lowell, R. C.
  • Physica Status Solidi (a), Vol. 5, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1002/pssa.2210050210

High-resolution non-destructive three-dimensional imaging of integrated circuits
journal, March 2017

  • Holler, Mirko; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel; Tsai, Esther H. R.
  • Nature, Vol. 543, Issue 7645
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature21698

OMNY PIN—A versatile sample holder for tomographic measurements at room and cryogenic temperatures
journal, November 2017

  • Holler, M.; Raabe, J.; Wepf, R.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 88, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4996092

Bimodal Sintered Silver Nanoparticle Paste with Ultrahigh Thermal Conductivity and Shear Strength for High Temperature Thermal Interface Material Applications
journal, April 2015

  • Li, Mingyu; Xiao, Yong; Zhang, Zhihao
  • ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, Vol. 7, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1021/acsami.5b01341