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Title: Model comparison from LIGO–Virgo data on GW170817’s binary components and consequences for the merger remnant

Abstract

GW170817 is the very first observation of gravitational waves originating from the coalescence of two compact objects in the mass range of neutron stars, accompanied by electromagnetic counterparts, and offers an opportunity to directly probe the internal structure of neutron stars. We perform Bayesian model selection on a wide range of theoretical predictions for the neutron star equation of state. For the binary neutron star hypothesis, we find that we cannot rule out the majority of theoretical models considered. In addition, the gravitational-wave data alone does not rule out the possibility that one or both objects were low-mass black holes. We discuss the possible outcomes in the case of a binary neutron star merger, finding that all scenarios from prompt collapse to long-lived or even stable remnants are possible. For long-lived remnants, we place an upper limit of 1.9 kHz on the rotation rate. If a black hole was formed any time after merger and the coalescing stars were slowly rotating, then the maximum baryonic mass of non-rotating neutron stars is at most 3.05 $$M_\odot$$, and three equations of state considered here can be ruled out. We obtain a tighter limit of 2.67 $$M_\odot$$ for the case that the merger results in a hypermassive neutron star.

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC); National Science Foundation (NSF)
Contributing Org.:
[The LIGO Scientific Collaboration and The Virgo Collaboration]
OSTI Identifier:
1603630
Grant/Contract Number:  
[AC02-05CH11231]
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Classical and Quantum Gravity
Additional Journal Information:
[ Journal Volume: 37; Journal Issue: 4]; Journal ID: ISSN 0264-9381
Publisher:
IOP Publishing
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
neutron stars; neutron star equation of state; gravitational wave astronomy; compact object mergers

Citation Formats

Abbott, B. P., Abbott, R., Abbott, T. D., Abraham, S., Acernese, F., Ackley, K., Adams, C., Adya, V. B., Affeldt, C., Agathos, M., Agatsuma, K., Aggarwal, N., Aguiar, O. D., Aiello, L., Ain, A., Ajith, P., Allen, G., Allocca, A., Aloy, M. A., Altin, P. A., Amato, A., Anand, S., Ananyeva, A., Anderson, S. B., Anderson, W. G., Angelova, S. V., Antier, S., Appert, S., Arai, K., Araya, M. C., Areeda, J. S., Arène, M., Arnaud, N., Aronson, S. M., Arun, K. G., Ascenzi, S., Ashton, G., Aston, S. M., Astone, P., Aubin, F., Aufmuth, P., AultONeal, K., Austin, C., Avendano, V., Avila-Alvarez, A., Babak, S., Bacon, P., Badaracco, F., Bader, M. K. M., Bae, S., Baird, J., Baker, P. T., Baldaccini, F., Ballardin, G., Ballmer, S. W., Bals, A., Banagiri, S., Barayoga, J. C., Barbieri, C., Barclay, S. E., Barish, B. C., Barker, D., Barkett, K., Barnum, S., Barone, F., Barr, B., Barsotti, L., Barsuglia, M., Barta, D., Bartlett, J., Bartos, I., Bassiri, R., Basti, A., Bawaj, M., Bayley, J. C., Bazzan, M., Bécsy, B., Bejger, M., Belahcene, I., Bell, A. S., Beniwal, D., Benjamin, M. G., Berger, B. K., Bergmann, G., Bernuzzi, S., Berry, C. P. L., Bersanetti, D., Bertolini, A., Betzwieser, J., Bhandare, R., Bidler, J., Biggs, E., Bilenko, I. A., Bilgili, S. A., Billingsley, G., Birney, R., Birnholtz, O., Biscans, S., Bischi, M., Biscoveanu, S., Bisht, A., Bitossi, M., Bizouard, M. A., Blackburn, J. K., Blackman, J., Blair, C. D., Blair, D. G., Blair, R. M., Bloemen, S., Bobba, F., Bode, N., Boer, M., Boetzel, Y., Bogaert, G., Bondu, F., Bonnand, R., Booker, P., Boom, B. A., Bork, R., Boschi, V., Bose, S., Bossilkov, V., Bosveld, J., Bouffanais, Y., Bozzi, A., Bradaschia, C., Brady, P. R., Bramley, A., Branchesi, M., Brau, J. E., Breschi, M., Briant, T., Briggs, J. H., Brighenti, F., Brillet, A., Brinkmann, M., Brockill, P., Brooks, A. F., Brooks, J., Brown, D. D., Brunett, S., Buikema, A., Bulik, T., Bulten, H. J., Buonanno, A., Buskulic, D., Buy, C., Byer, R. L., Cabero, M., Cadonati, L., Cagnoli, G., Cahillane, C., Calderón Bustillo, J., Callister, T. A., Calloni, E., Camp, J. B., Campbell, W. A., Canepa, M., Cannon, K. C., Cao, H., Cao, J., Carapella, G., Carbognani, F., Caride, S., Carney, M. F., Carullo, G., Casanueva Diaz, J., Casentini, C., Caudill, S., Cavaglià, M., Cavalier, F., Cavalieri, R., Cella, G., Cerdá-Durán, P., Cesarini, E., Chaibi, O., Chakravarti, K., Chamberlin, S. J., Chan, M., Chao, S., Charlton, P., Chase, E. A., Chassande-Mottin, E., Chatterjee, D., Chaturvedi, M., Chatziioannou, K., Cheeseboro, B. D., Chen, H. Y., Chen, X., Chen, Y., Cheng, H-P, Cheong, C. K., Chia, H. Y., Chiadini, F., Chincarini, A., Chiummo, A., Cho, G., Cho, H. S., Cho, M., Christensen, N., Chu, Q., Chua, S., Chung, K. W., Chung, S., Ciani, G., Cieślar, M., Ciobanu, A. A., Ciolfi, R., Cipriano, F., Cirone, A., Clara, F., Clark, J. A., Clearwater, P., Cleva, F., Coccia, E., Cohadon, P-F, Cohen, D., Colleoni, M., Collette, C. G., Collins, C., Colpi, M., Cominsky, L. R., Constancio, M., Conti, L., Cooper, S. J., Corban, P., Corbitt, T. R., Cordero-Carrión, I., Corezzi, S., Corley, K. R., Cornish, N., Corre, D., Corsi, A., Cortese, S., Costa, C. A., Cotesta, R., Coughlin, M. W., Coughlin, S. B., Coulon, J-P, Countryman, S. T., Couvares, P., Covas, P. B., Cowan, E. E., Coward, D. M., Cowart, M. J., Coyne, D. C., Coyne, R., Creighton, J. D. E., Creighton, T. D., Cripe, J., Croquette, M., Crowder, S. G., Cullen, T. J., Cumming, A., Cunningham, L., Cuoco, E., Dal Canton, T., Dálya, G., D’Angelo, B., Danilishin, S. L., D’Antonio, S., Danzmann, K., Dasgupta, A., Da Silva Costa, C. F., Datrier, L. E. H., Dattilo, V., Dave, I., Davier, M., Davis, D., Daw, E. J., DeBra, D., Deenadayalan, M., Degallaix, J., De Laurentis, M., Deléglise, S., Del Pozzo, W., DeMarchi, L. M., Demos, N., Dent, T., De Pietri, R., De Rosa, R., De Rossi, C., DeSalvo, R., de Varona, O., Dhurandhar, S., Díaz, M. C., Dietrich, T., Di Fiore, L., DiFronzo, C., Di Giorgio, C., Di Giovanni, F., Di Giovanni, M., Di Girolamo, T., Di Lieto, A., Ding, B., Di Pace, S., Di Palma, I., Di Renzo, F., Divakarla, A. K., Dmitriev, A., Doctor, Z., Donovan, F., Dooley, K. L., Doravari, S., Dorrington, I., Downes, T. P., Drago, M., Driggers, J. C., Du, Z., Ducoin, J-G, Dupej, P., Durante, O., Dwyer, S. E., Easter, P. J., Eddolls, G., Edo, T. B., Effler, A., Ehrens, P., Eichholz, J., Eikenberry, S. S., Eisenmann, M., Eisenstein, R. A., Errico, L., Essick, R. C., Estelles, H., Estevez, D., Etienne, Z. B., Etzel, T., Evans, M., Evans, T. M., Fafone, V., Fairhurst, S., Fan, X., Farinon, S., Farr, B., Farr, W. M., Fauchon-Jones, E. J., Favata, M., Fays, M., Fazio, M., Fee, C., Feicht, J., Fejer, M. M., Feng, F., Fernandez-Galiana, A., Ferrante, I., Ferreira, E. C., Ferreira, T. A., Fidecaro, F., Fiori, I., Fiorucci, D., Fishbach, M., Fisher, R. P., Fishner, J. M., Fittipaldi, R., Fitz-Axen, M., Fiumara, V., Flaminio, R., Fletcher, M., Floden, E., Flynn, E., Fong, H., Font, J. A., Forsyth, P. W. F., Fournier, J-D, Frasca, S., Frasconi, F., Frei, Z., Freise, A., Frey, R., Frey, V., Fritschel, P., Frolov, V. V., Fronzè, G., Fulda, P., Fyffe, M., Gabbard, H. A., Gadre, B. U., Gaebel, S. M., Gair, J. R., Gammaitoni, L., Gaonkar, S. G., García-Quirós, C., Garufi, F., Gateley, B., Gaudio, S., Gaur, G., Gayathri, V., Gemme, G., Genin, E., Gennai, A., George, D., George, J., Gergely, L., Ghonge, S., Ghosh, Abhirup, Ghosh, Archisman, Ghosh, S., Giacomazzo, B., Giaime, J. A., Giardina, K. D., Gibson, D. R., Gill, K., Glover, L., Gniesmer, J., Godwin, P., Goetz, E., Goetz, R., Goncharov, B., González, G., Gonzalez Castro, J. M., Gopakumar, A., Gossan, S. E., Gosselin, M., Gouaty, R., Grace, B., Grado, A., Granata, M., Grant, A., Gras, S., Grassia, P., Gray, C., Gray, R., Greco, G., Green, A. C., Green, R., Gretarsson, E. M., Grimaldi, A., Grimm, S. J., Groot, P., Grote, H., Grunewald, S., Gruning, P., Guidi, G. M., Gulati, H. K., Guo, Y., Gupta, A., Gupta, Anchal, Gupta, P., Gustafson, E. K., Gustafson, R., Haegel, L., Halim, O., Hall, B. R., Hall, E. D., Hamilton, E. Z., Hammond, G., Haney, M., Hanke, M. M., Hanks, J., Hanna, C., Hannam, M. D., Hannuksela, O. A., Hansen, T. J., Hanson, J., Harder, T., Hardwick, T., Haris, K., Harms, J., Harry, G. M., Harry, I. W., Hasskew, R. K., Haster, C. J., Haughian, K., Hayes, F. J., Healy, J., Heidmann, A., Heintze, M. C., Heitmann, H., Hellman, F., Hello, P., Hemming, G., Hendry, M., Heng, I. S., Hennig, J., Hernandez Vivanco, Francisco, Heurs, M., Hild, S., Hinderer, T., Ho, W. C. G., Hochheim, S., Hofman, D., Holgado, A. M., Holland, N. A., Holt, K., Holz, D. E., Hopkins, P., Horst, C., Hough, J., Howell, E. J., Hoy, C. G., Huang, Y., Hübner, M. T., Huerta, E. A., Huet, D., Hughey, B., Hui, V., Husa, S., Huttner, S. H., Huynh-Dinh, T., Idzkowski, B., Iess, A., Inchauspe, H., Ingram, C., Inta, R., Intini, G., Irwin, B., Isa, H. N., Isac, J-M, Isi, M., Iyer, B. R., Jacqmin, T., Jadhav, S. J., Jani, K., Janthalur, N. N., Jaranowski, P., Jariwala, D., Jenkins, A. C., Jiang, J., Johnson, D. S., Jones, A. W., Jones, D. I., Jones, J. D., Jones, R., Jonker, R. J. G., Ju, L., Junker, J., Kalaghatgi, C. V., Kalogera, V., Kamai, B., Kandhasamy, S., Kang, G., Kanner, J. B., Kapadia, S. J., Karki, S., Kashyap, R., Kasprzack, M., Kastaun, W., Katsanevas, S., Katsavounidis, E., Katzman, W., Kaufer, S., Kawabe, K., Keerthana, N. V., Kéfélian, F., Keitel, D., Kennedy, R., Key, J. S., Khalili, F. Y., Khan, I., Khan, S., Khazanov, E. A., Khetan, N., Khursheed, M., Kijbunchoo, N., Kim, Chunglee, Kim, J. C., Kim, K., Kim, W., Kim, W. S., Kim, Y-M, Kimball, C., King, P. J., Kinley-Hanlon, M., Kirchhoff, R., Kissel, J. S., Kleybolte, L., Klika, J. H., Klimenko, S., Knowles, T. D., Koch, P., Koehlenbeck, S. M., Koekoek, G., Koley, S., Kondrashov, V., Kontos, A., Koper, N., Korobko, M., Korth, W. Z., Kovalam, M., Kozak, D. B., Krämer, C., Kringel, V., Krishnendu, N., Królak, A., Krupinski, N., Kuehn, G., Kumar, A., Kumar, P., Kumar, Rahul, Kumar, Rakesh, Kuo, L., Kutynia, A., Kwang, S., Lackey, B. D., Laghi, D., Lai, K. H., Lam, T. L., Landry, M., Landry, P., Lane, B. B., Lang, R. N., Lange, J., Lantz, B., Lanza, R. K., Lartaux-Vollard, A., Lasky, P. D., Laxen, M., Lazzarini, A., Lazzaro, C., Leaci, P., Leavey, S., Lecoeuche, Y. K., Lee, C. H., Lee, H. K., Lee, H. M., Lee, H. W., Lee, J., Lee, K., Lehmann, J., Lenon, A. K., Leroy, N., Letendre, N., Levin, Y., Li, A., Li, J., Li, K. J. L., Li, T. G. F., Li, X., Lin, F., Linde, F., Linker, S. D., Littenberg, T. B., Liu, J., Liu, X., Llorens-Monteagudo, M., Lo, R. K. L., London, L. T., Longo, A., Lorenzini, M., Loriette, V., Lormand, M., Losurdo, G., Lough, J. D., Lousto, C. O., Lovelace, G., Lower, M. E., Lück, H., Lumaca, D., Lundgren, A. P., Lynch, R., Ma, Y., Macas, R., Macfoy, S., MacInnis, M., Macleod, D. M., Macquet, A., Magaña Hernandez, I., Magaña-Sandoval, F., Magee, R. M., Majorana, E., Maksimovic, I., Malik, A., Man, N., Mandic, V., Mangano, V., Mansell, G. L., Manske, M., Mantovani, M., Mapelli, M., Marchesoni, F., Marion, F., Márka, S., Márka, Z., Markakis, C., Markosyan, A. S., Markowitz, A., Maros, E., Marquina, A., Marsat, S., Martelli, F., Martin, I. W., Martin, R. M., Martinez, V., Martynov, D. V., Masalehdan, H., Mason, K., Massera, E., Masserot, A., Massinger, T. J., Masso-Reid, M., Mastrogiovanni, S., Matas, A., Matichard, F., Matone, L., Mavalvala, N., McCann, J. J., McCarthy, R., McClelland, D. E., McCormick, S., McCuller, L., McGuire, S. C., McIsaac, C., McIver, J., McManus, D. J., McRae, T., McWilliams, S. T., Meacher, D., Meadors, G. D., Mehmet, M., Mehta, A. K., Meidam, J., Mejuto Villa, E., Melatos, A., Mendell, G., Mercer, R. A., Mereni, L., Merfeld, K., Merilh, E. L., Merzougui, M., Meshkov, S., Messenger, C., Messick, C., Messina, F., Metzdorff, R., Meyers, P. M., Meylahn, F., Miani, A., Miao, H., Michel, C., Middleton, H., Milano, L., Miller, A. L., Millhouse, M., Mills, J. C., Milovich-Goff, M. C., Minazzoli, O., Minenkov, Y., Mishkin, A., Mishra, C., Mistry, T., Mitra, S., Mitrofanov, V. P., Mitselmakher, G., Mittleman, R., Mo, G., Moffa, D., Mogushi, K., Mohapatra, S. R. P., Molina-Ruiz, M., Mondin, M., Montani, M., Moore, C. J., Moraru, D., Morawski, F., Moreno, G., Morisaki, S., Mours, B., Mow-Lowry, C. M., Muciaccia, F., Mukherjee, Arunava, Mukherjee, D., Mukherjee, S., Mukherjee, Subroto, Mukund, N., Mullavey, A., Munch, J., Muñiz, E. A., Muratore, M., Murray, P. G., Nagar, A., Nardecchia, I., Naticchioni, L., Nayak, R. K., Neil, B. F., Neilson, J., Nelemans, G., Nelson, T. J. N., Nery, M., Neunzert, A., Nevin, L., Ng, K. Y., Ng, S., Nguyen, C., Nguyen, P., Nichols, D., Nichols, S. A., Nissanke, S., Nocera, F., North, C., Nuttall, L. K., Obergaulinger, M., Oberling, J., O’Brien, B. D., Oganesyan, G., Ogin, G. H., Oh, J. J., Oh, S. H., Ohme, F., Ohta, H., Okada, M. A., Oliver, M., Oppermann, P., Oram, Richard J., O’Reilly, B., Ormiston, R. G., Ortega, L. F., O’Shaughnessy, R., Ossokine, S., Ottaway, D. J., Overmier, H., Owen, B. J., Pace, A. E., Pagano, G., Page, M. A., Pagliaroli, G., Pai, A., Pai, S. A., Palamos, J. R., Palashov, O., Palomba, C., Pan, H., Panda, P. K., Pang, P. T. H., Pankow, C., Pannarale, F., Pant, B. C., Paoletti, F., Paoli, A., Parida, A., Parker, W., Pascucci, D., Pasqualetti, A., Passaquieti, R., Passuello, D., Patil, M., Patricelli, B., Payne, E., Pearlstone, B. L., Pechsiri, T. C., Pedersen, A. J., Pedraza, M., Pedurand, R., Pele, A., Penn, S., Perego, A., Perez, C. J., Périgois, C., Perreca, A., Petermann, J., Pfeiffer, H. P., Phelps, M., Phukon, K. S., Piccinni, O. J., Pichot, M., Piergiovanni, F., Pierro, V., Pillant, G., Pinard, L., Pinto, I. 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@article{osti_1603630,
title = {Model comparison from LIGO–Virgo data on GW170817’s binary components and consequences for the merger remnant},
author = {Abbott, B. P. and Abbott, R. and Abbott, T. D. and Abraham, S. and Acernese, F. and Ackley, K. and Adams, C. and Adya, V. B. and Affeldt, C. and Agathos, M. and Agatsuma, K. and Aggarwal, N. and Aguiar, O. D. and Aiello, L. and Ain, A. and Ajith, P. and Allen, G. and Allocca, A. and Aloy, M. A. and Altin, P. A. and Amato, A. and Anand, S. and Ananyeva, A. and Anderson, S. B. and Anderson, W. G. and Angelova, S. V. and Antier, S. and Appert, S. and Arai, K. and Araya, M. C. and Areeda, J. S. and Arène, M. and Arnaud, N. and Aronson, S. M. and Arun, K. G. and Ascenzi, S. and Ashton, G. and Aston, S. M. and Astone, P. and Aubin, F. and Aufmuth, P. and AultONeal, K. and Austin, C. and Avendano, V. and Avila-Alvarez, A. and Babak, S. and Bacon, P. and Badaracco, F. and Bader, M. K. M. and Bae, S. and Baird, J. and Baker, P. T. and Baldaccini, F. and Ballardin, G. and Ballmer, S. W. and Bals, A. and Banagiri, S. and Barayoga, J. C. and Barbieri, C. and Barclay, S. E. and Barish, B. C. and Barker, D. and Barkett, K. and Barnum, S. and Barone, F. and Barr, B. and Barsotti, L. and Barsuglia, M. and Barta, D. and Bartlett, J. and Bartos, I. and Bassiri, R. and Basti, A. and Bawaj, M. and Bayley, J. C. and Bazzan, M. and Bécsy, B. and Bejger, M. and Belahcene, I. and Bell, A. S. and Beniwal, D. and Benjamin, M. G. and Berger, B. K. and Bergmann, G. and Bernuzzi, S. and Berry, C. P. L. and Bersanetti, D. and Bertolini, A. and Betzwieser, J. and Bhandare, R. and Bidler, J. and Biggs, E. and Bilenko, I. A. and Bilgili, S. A. and Billingsley, G. and Birney, R. and Birnholtz, O. and Biscans, S. and Bischi, M. and Biscoveanu, S. and Bisht, A. and Bitossi, M. and Bizouard, M. A. and Blackburn, J. K. and Blackman, J. and Blair, C. D. and Blair, D. G. and Blair, R. M. and Bloemen, S. and Bobba, F. and Bode, N. and Boer, M. and Boetzel, Y. and Bogaert, G. and Bondu, F. and Bonnand, R. and Booker, P. and Boom, B. 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abstractNote = {GW170817 is the very first observation of gravitational waves originating from the coalescence of two compact objects in the mass range of neutron stars, accompanied by electromagnetic counterparts, and offers an opportunity to directly probe the internal structure of neutron stars. We perform Bayesian model selection on a wide range of theoretical predictions for the neutron star equation of state. For the binary neutron star hypothesis, we find that we cannot rule out the majority of theoretical models considered. In addition, the gravitational-wave data alone does not rule out the possibility that one or both objects were low-mass black holes. We discuss the possible outcomes in the case of a binary neutron star merger, finding that all scenarios from prompt collapse to long-lived or even stable remnants are possible. For long-lived remnants, we place an upper limit of 1.9 kHz on the rotation rate. If a black hole was formed any time after merger and the coalescing stars were slowly rotating, then the maximum baryonic mass of non-rotating neutron stars is at most 3.05 $M_\odot$, and three equations of state considered here can be ruled out. We obtain a tighter limit of 2.67 $M_\odot$ for the case that the merger results in a hypermassive neutron star.},
doi = {10.1088/1361-6382/ab5f7c},
journal = {Classical and Quantum Gravity},
number = [4],
volume = [37],
place = {United States},
year = {2020},
month = {1}
}

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